Choice as the goal of education - Pedagogy. Theoretical pedagogy

2.7. Choice as the goal of education

To believe that the school education in the coming decades will be transformed on the basis of good, love and mercy, you need to be a hopeless optimist. The society continues to slip into a moral abyss, and an end to this process is not yet visible. Lost Generations 1980-1990-ies. themselves become educators. What and how they will educate is not hard to guess. Apparently, the right decision will be to give up for a while the utopian goals of education and offer the school a pragmatic, consonant with the present day and our level of upbringing goals, realizing which, you can begin to rise to higher goals based on universal values.

After we have conscientiously examined the main provisions relating to the definition of the aims of education in world and national pedagogy, we will dwell on the author's concept , the provisions of which were supported by specialists in determining the domestic educational strategy for the 21st century. Of course, the main question is how we want to see Russia, its citizens at the beginning of the beginning of the century. There are as many answers as there are willing to comment on this. Everyone wants to see our society democratic, cohesive, economically strong, and its citizens - carriers of high universal values. However, the world changes, and we change with it. Values ​​are determined by people, and people are formed on the values ​​they accept. In the new century, according to all assumptions, they will be different.

On the question of what the main human values ​​in the 21st century will be, the pragmatic answer is: maximally adapted to the changed conditions of existence, aimed at acquiring knowledge and skills that help a person to live, and maybe to survive in aspiring to the destruction of the world. The main value - human life - will directly depend on the acquisition of experience of self-preservation and behavior in alternative conditions, mutually exclusive situations where a person at every step will have to make a very difficult choice.

At the end of XX century. the development of sciences has radically changed our understanding of the world, society, values, morals. Completely shifted the main landmarks - the notion of good and evil. If the displacement of the poles is only predicted for the Earth, it has already occurred in public life and morality. The contradictory philosophical doctrines prove that what has always been considered Good is to be understood as Evil, and the latter is nothing but Good. Where is the truth, and who is to be trusted? The masses of people lost their support, entered into antagonistic relations, took up alternative positions leading up to armed conflicts. The process is growing, in the new millennium, the situation is expected to worsen.

Especially acute impact on the education of people is growing at a tremendous pace of informatization. Humanity has already released a genie from a bottle, legitimizing the right of every person to freely distribute and receive any information. Today and in the future each person, any group can freely and openly express, propagate any opinion, impose any philosophy, design any behavior and way of life. It is vain to hope that only highly moral people will be admitted to the means of informatization surrounding the entire globe with an invisible cobweb. It will be very difficult to live in this world. Especially it will be difficult for those who enter life and try to understand something in it. Given the realities, it is necessary to educate people to analyze what is happening, to teach them to live in conditions of a huge information glut, a bitter war of ideas, ideologies, clan interests, propaganda of all possible, and mostly, alas, primitive and low-lying forms of behavior.

To understand the whole danger of the uncontrolled development of the process of "blurring of the minds and souls", it is enough to see how many books are produced for young people. And in this area the process is growing, there is no hope in the near future to move to controlled reading. The authorities were captured by the same created permissiveness laws and this problem is not being addressed, the business is hardened in anticipation of superprofits. The last hope for school: she will bring out, where necessary, a teacher who will correct everything.

The destiny of the present and the future of man is to make a choice. Already today, every day, hourly and every minute is forced to make a choice many thousands of times - starting with the philosophical justifications for their existence, behavior and activity and ending with the choice of transport, clothing, soap and buttons. To teach a person to make a humane, grounded, good for society and himself choice is the main and universal goal of education. The choice of values ​​and priorities, the way and quality of life, behavior and activity contains this goal. A choice that becomes an independent value, because of his envy acceptance or denial of all other values.

Let's turn to finding a balance for philosophical positions, mainly those that govern life. The clearest idea of ​​what is happening to us and outside of us, when we choose, is given by Theosophy. First of all, let us agree with her position that human life proceeds mostly in binary code - "yes" or no & quot ;. In the range between these extremes is a large range of specific situations in which a person makes a choice. Our whole life is an endless choice.

One of the basic laws governing people's lives is the law of free will or free choice. Theosophists consider it to be the strategic law of the universe, which guides the development of the consciousness of mankind. This law is given to people so that they will rise in their intellectual development and eventually learn to make only the right choice. With the right choice, life continues and improves, wrong choice leads to destruction and death.

To be or not to be? If so, how? If not, then why? People do not make a single step without a choice. Sum of small selections gives rise to a certain quality of life: what we have chosen, what we have, and what we have received, so we live. A person practically only does what he chooses. Manifesting his free will, he chooses socialism or market, authoritarianism or democracy, chooses between technical or humanitarian education, chooses his wife, work and life. Nature expects from man only a choice, everything else she has already done herself. You have chosen a train - the further from you no longer depends, all the stops and the end point are already defined. You had only to choose. From whatever end we have not approached this, everything in human life has the first choice. Slavery, drug addiction, drunkenness, prostitution, poverty, sickness and death are consequences of once made choices.

Violent rulers always start by depriving people of their freedom of choice. The deprivation of choice is an extreme manifestation of authoritarianism, the suppression of free will, consciousness and activity of people. Totalitarian regimes are only concerned with this. Authoritarian schools that exist under these regimes suppress the personality, deprive it of the choice, the choice is most important, the right to be oneself, to think and act independently. Deprivation of freedom of choice is the right and only way to preserve the established order once and for all. This is a great advantage, and a great evil. Both the first and the second can only be understood a long time later. When the Inquisition held back the development of knowledge in all possible ways, the spread of free thinking and the destruction of customs, she did so with a full understanding of the consequences of such processes. Not understanding what this will lead to, Russia overnight chose democracy and market reforms: how many people still want to go back to a totalitarian, non-alternative, but relatively calm and well-fed society. When yesterday's slave, who has no ideas about freedom and democracy, faces the dilemma of free choice, he is doomed. They will not make the right choice. The slave is not brought up for choice. All of us are slaves of free choice, our whole life is subordinated to it.

However, a person has the mind for that, to see from which source he draws. If he sees this and understands, then his choice, the manifestation of his will becomes conscious. So, in order for the choice to be justified and correct, a person needs to open his eyes. It should be long and patiently educated. The management of choice is the goal of such upbringing.

Decision making is the result of the choice made. This is the visible part of the iceberg, the design of long reflections, the cast lot and the burned bridge. This is followed by an act. The choice made by man is the way he will go, the strategy of his life. Selection is how he goes. We sometimes know how to choose, but do not know how to choose. Here is an example with politicians, which we choose, but we do not select. The Bible says: "Many are called, but few are chosen."

Refuse to use the phrase "right choice", because no one can explain what it means. Let us dwell on the concept of "well-founded choice", where the future development of events and the result achieved are the criterion of validity. The choice that a person makes must be fully justified. This means that the analysis must be played all possible alternatives to the development of events and the results achieved, of which the optimal for these conditions and time is chosen. To make an informed choice, a person must draw the full force of his knowledge, the full potential of his mind. An undeveloped mind, devoid of a solid moral foundation, can not make a choice, and analysis and synthesis operations are inaccessible to him. The only thing that he is capable of is to take a momentary decision, dictated by superficial circumstances. At the same time, it is not estimated that remote, but even close, consequences.

Therefore, for a balanced choice, people should be developed intellectually and spiritually. School instruction should be aimed at giving students the knowledge necessary for selection, developing in their necessary volume their moral and intellectual sphere, and teaching pragmatic decision-making algorithms. With this approach, the uselessness of studying the "objects" becomes obvious.

Why is it so difficult to choose a person? Mainly because by the time when he already leaves the care of his parents and in some cases is obliged to make a choice and be responsible for himself, he has an established system of habits, stereotypes of thinking, activity, behavior. Analysis requires a lot of stress, and the associated choice is a rejection of established stereotypes. To find a new one, you must sacrifice the old, get rid of, renounce it. Progress is impossible without sacrifice. Perfection is only possible through the destruction of the old form with its former content. Do not become healthy without sacrificing warmth and satiety. Do not become wise without sacrificing the old worldview. The victim is noble, but difficult. You can talk endlessly about kindness, but once you have to sacrifice something personally, do good, make a concrete deed that requires effort, it immediately becomes clear how difficult it is for a person.

Choice is the abbreviated designation of the great law of negating negation. The consequence of this law is a constant renewal, an ever new and increasingly perfect choice.

The ability to make a choice to a person is not given from birth, it is brought up. To form this skill is the most important thing that education can and must do. Why do people not know how to make a choice, why do they make mistakes when this choice needs to be made? Because they are not properly educated. Nobody ever raised this problem with us, nothing was done in this respect. As a result, a mass stuffed with fragments to very few people, willing to take, grab, consume, suck. Those who can not give, but only take, are primitive in their essence, no matter how they are shaken by diplomas and whatever clothes they take.

Choice is not only moral but also emotional. A person must experience it, experience it deeply.

For example, a person is sick; he needs to analyze his state, his capabilities and make a choice. Most often he prefers a pill, but it has the same property as deception - it helps instantly. It is quite appropriate in this situation to suffer, the body itself will cope with the disease. There is no suffering, there will be no strategic result. Modern man is so unaccustomed to patience, that in critical cases, he can not do without pills.

Another example from the field of training. What should I do to choose a study of a foreign language under hypnosis, in a dream or through a long, patient, difficult training? The result is easy to predict - there is no sacrifice laziness, there will be no result.

Our undeveloped nature resists the victim, but without it there is no movement forward. Teaching the ability to make choices, you need to simultaneously form and the emotional grounds that accompany the selection process.

Let's summarize some of the results. The general goal of education is the formation of a person who can make a choice, live in a world of rival alternatives. The person choosing is the short definition of the future personality type. The person who chooses is the person who is perfect and adapted to the realities of life. The formation of alternative behavior, choice management, the formation of skills to make the right choice - the pragmatic tasks of education. It's democratic, humane. The person himself assesses his intentions, himself makes a choice, he is responsible for its consequences. Parenting opens the eyes of the growing up person. Educators together with pupils analyze the possible options and consequences of his choice, help in choosing the life path.

And then let everyone act in their own way. It is already known that no exhortations, no prohibitions, no violent formation of proper behavior yield results. A person strives to do everything in his own way, no matter what. He will accept our arguments only when we are able to somehow convince him to give up his.

Everything great is simple. The purpose of forming a choice of justified behavior shifts the emphasis from solving modern tasks of labor, emotional and other upbringing to the upbringing of the main human property - the ability to analyze information and make choices, subordinates the achievement of this universal, strategic and at the same time a pragmatic goal of the entire educational process. Let everything in our educational process remain for the time being according to the old one, but it is viewed from a new angle - that it gives the growing up person for a reasonable choice, for a happy life. What does mathematics provide, what literature will help, where biology and chemistry are oriented, what specific skills will be analyzed and made by the choice of history, social science, economics and law? From this perspective, a lot for us sparkles with new faces.

The goal of education in our complex and pragmatic life must be both general, weighty, strategic, and concrete enough so that everyone can be convinced of its importance and necessity. Choice as a goal meets these requirements. It is sufficiently technological to decompose into clear, specific tasks, the achievement of which can be verified. Naturally, its essence, volume and focus will constantly adjust life.

Let's return to the practical plane of education of the person choosing. In our schools this has not been thought about yet. Almost everything is based on authoritative instructions on the assimilation of a certain amount of fragmentary information from disparate objects. The benefits for most people from this is not great. Choose the right from a huge flow of information is not taught: learn everything, maybe something will come in handy. Intellectuals, too, they do not give much: not because of the school, but in spite of it they learn to analyze situations on their own and make an informed choice.

Traditionally, our school continues to stand on interdictions, which exclude the choice. The more we forbid, the worse for those who forbid. Prohibiting, the teacher becomes an enemy of the student, but they need to be friends. This is proved by the entire history of the development of mankind, this is proved by the history of the development of each person, this, finally, we must conclude from the "achievements" our school of the last decade.

We learn the student all the time. Why and how much can you do? Whatever it may be, he does not know how to make a choice. It's still young. And everything else does not matter - ability, temperament, character. One will soon realize, the other - more slowly. That's all. It is necessary to help everyone: both slow-witted and quick-witted. Everyone is important and interesting to know how to live comfortably, protect yourself from disease, find friends, start a family, get a job. Answers to infinite as based on the analysis of many alternatives, the choice of the optimal strategy, decision-making. The correctness of the solution must work all acquired knowledge, skills, ways of thinking. And if saturated carbons they do not work for it, they just do not need everyone, but only those who chose them for further comprehension. Everyone needs strong ethical knowledge, knowledge of the social structure, the history of the country and humanity, the wisdom of life, legal, economic, pedagogical knowledge.

How much is laid in each person, and how much depends on what he chooses, what he will do with himself, how to manage his life. And who, first of all, should think about the awakening of man, if not the person himself, his relatives and educators. The teacher will help, guide, encourage.

It is worth recalling in this connection the action in the education of yet another great law - the cause and effect. The essence of it is extremely simple: what you deserve, then get it. In earlier educational systems, this moral position was given a predominant role. Until recently we, for example, remembered: who does not work, he does not eat. There are obvious reasons and consequences, which are closely connected with the choice. All pupils, without exception, must know and remember the vital cause-effect relationships. Normally educated people are engaged in identifying the relationship between causes and effects. Digging in the effects of doing all the rest. One reason may have several consequences. The main causes of all our disasters in the spiritual and moral impoverishment of man. Therefore, the rivers grow shallow, the poet wrote, and there is not enough bread.

Reason and life effect: if you want to be treated well, treat people the same way. Is this truth, its understanding and practical adherence less important than the multiplication of polynomials? How many and what disasters still need to understand that we need to return to the first principles, and not cherish academic nonsense in schools? Instant results will not be. If we succeed, something will be corrected in 20 years, but the conditions must be created today, deliberately sow the necessary reasons. Whom we invite, he will come to visit.

Someone wants to say: "My God, what prose - all to analyze!". Agree, prose, even calculation. Do you know the percentage of street children today? Obviously, do you consider this poetry? And who counts the warped children's souls? And this is also poetry? No? Then we will analyze and even count. All the sublime always stands on the most real.

To implement any goal, conditions are necessary. Education as an awakening of the soul is necessary in order to create conditions in the mental world of the pupil, to whom the right thoughts will be drawn. There are no special conditions for reorienting the goals of upbringing, everything that is necessary already exists. Razorha begins in the minds, begins when no one gives himself the trouble to think. Maybe it's not too late?

The goal given through the choice has many advantages over modern vague and unviable formulations.

1. This goal is broad enough and quite pragmatic. Subordinating it to the strategic direction of school education, we bring education closer to life, making it practically useful for every person. A person gets exactly what is needed first of all in life. To teach everyone to make an informed choice, to make independent and measured decisions is to form an individual with core qualities, independent, initiative, viable.

2. The goal changes the content of the teaching and upbringing process that does not correspond to the present time, which is impossible without a new paradigm of upbringing. It is not surprising that, trying to form a comprehensive and harmoniously developed personality, our educational system has not been able to get out of the deadlock itself for many years already and continues to increase the amount of knowledge by inertia, not giving an answer to the main question - why all this is necessary. In the general education school, only those subjects that are necessary for everyone to form the core qualities of the individual are studied: ethics, logic, history, language, literature, psychology, sociology, law. All others are optional and in volumes dictated by the free choice of students and their parents. The basic school forms the personality until 17-18 years, while the plasticity of the nervous system is sufficient and the sensitive period of the formation of self-determination, life plans and personality orientations continues. The basis of education is the teacher-led self-education.

Russia took a very responsible step forward, for the first time offering schoolchildren their own choice of subjects for study. Only physical culture, native language and literature (literature), native history and social science remain binding for all. In the post-Soviet space, former norms continue to operate, depriving schoolchildren of the right to choose.

3. Programs of the educational process, of all school subjects are changed and unloaded. Free time schoolchildren - an inviolable reserve of his self-development. Training courses are only integrated. Textbooks are created on a competitive basis. The first and main among them is "Man, his life and happiness."

4. It is quite obvious that the parents, crippled by the previous social and educational systems, are no longer able to guide the upbringing of their children. This duty must be assumed by the state, ensuring proper moral education for its growing citizens. The priority of education above all else, otherwise the state itself can cease to exist. Only the wise, highly professional, dedicated people who admit the process to the classes are admitted to the classes, who lead the process dogmatically, without any gossip and "creativity", using tried and reliable tools and methods.


Final test

Find 10 incorrect statements







Parenting passes aimlessly as a natural process


Education always has goals, regardless of whether they are aware or not


Educational ideal is the image of a perfect person, the formation of which is held by the upbringing course


Ideals and goals of education are not interrelated


The real ideal reflects the ideas accepted in the given society and at the given time about the educated person


The basis of the practical ideal that sets the goals of school education, should be laid human values ​​


Representations, values, norms, living conditions change, and ideals remain constant


The purpose of education determines the ideas and aspirations of progressive-minded people


The eternal, imperishable, absolute universal values ​​act in human life like the great and inviolable laws of nature


The school should return to the spiritual education of the younger generations and as a first step introduce special lessons of spirituality


Freedom, equality, brotherhood do not belong to fundamental values ​​


Set practical values ​​- man, family, work, knowledge, culture, fatherland, earth, world


"Civil virtues": hope and confidence; courage; self respect and self-respect; friendship; confidence; honesty; decency and education of citizenship


The system of values ​​that are really rewarded in life always wins


The spread of the values ​​of modern youth is in the whole possible spectrum - from primitive to sublime.


The goal of education is the complete emancipation of pupil's behavior, complete freedom of personality actions


The goal of education is determined by the needs of the development of society and depends on the mode of production, the rates of social and scientific and technological progress, the achieved level of development of pedagogical theory and practice, the possibilities of society, educational institutions, teachers and students


The goal of education is to promote the mental, moral, emotional and physical


The goal of the secondary general education school is to contribute to the mental, moral, emotional, labor and physical development of the schoolboy, to create prerequisites for familiarizing with universal values, to provide opportunities for self-realization, the disclosure of potential opportunities, creativity, success


The realization of the goal is carried out taking into account personal and social needs, in the environment of humanistic relations, on the basis of the laws of the intellectual and spiritual formation of man and with the support of age opportunities


The measure of reasonable consumption of resources and benefits is not a matter of education


Globalization has no effect on changing goals and objectives of upbringing


Pragmatic pedagogy defends goals, deduced from life


The pedagogy of existentialism aims at arming a person with experience of existence


Western values ​​have the lowest status in the rest of the world


The main idea of ​​behaviorism in relation to upbringing is that human behavior is a controlled process. It is caused by the stimuli used and requires positive reinforcement


To implement any goal, conditions are necessary


The pedagogy of neo-Thomism advocates the formation of a God-fearing personality


Ideals should be discarded, they are not needed in a structured society


Educating the ability to make a choice school should not engage in


A person is prone to make mistakes

Wrong answers:

1.4, 7, 8, 11, 16,21,22, 29,30

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