Civilization as a concept
Civilization (from the Latin civilis - civil, state) - the stage of historical development, following savagery and barbarity. Criteria that distinguish civilization from barbarism: a system of economic relations based on the division of labor; The means of production (including living labor) controlled by the ruling class, which centralizes and redistributes the surplus product; an exchange network controlled by a professional merchant or state; a political structure dominated by a layer of society that concentrates executive and administrative functions in its hands, etc.
In the XVII-XVIII centuries. the words civilization, civility (the qualities inherent in the citizen, courtesy, courtesy, familiarity with the urban environment) spread. For the first time, the word civilization The Marquis de VR Mirabeau used the treatise "A Friend of Laws" (1757). VR de Mirabeau believed that civilization is a relaxation of morals, courtesy, politeness and knowledge, distributed in order to observe the rules of decency and that these rules play the role of the laws of a community.
Civilization, but In. Dahl, is a hostel, citizenship, a consciousness of the rights and duties of man and citizen (Explanatory dictionary of the living Great United States language).
In encyclopedic dictionary of Brockhaus and Efron civilization is named the state of the people, which it achieved thanks to the development of the public, the life of society and which is characterized by a departure from the primitive simplicity and savagery, the improvement of material conditions and social relations and the high development of spiritual side.
Y H. Ya. Danilevsky civilization has a closed, individual character, but there is "all-human" - the totality of individual peoples. History is not the progress of a common civilization. There are only private civilizations, the development of individual cultural and historical types.
About. Spengler considered civilization as a destructive ossification of a culture dying in technology, an excess of intellectualism and rationality. Civilization is the inevitable fate of any culture, its completion and the inevitable end. Civilization - sclerized form the same culture that comes in the final phase of its history (industry development, the emergence of giant cities, etc.).
Civilizations, but A. Toynbee, - are integrity, parts of which are consistent with each other and are interdependent. All aspects of the social life of a civilization that is at the stage of growth are coordinated into a single social whole, where economic, political and cultural elements are coordinated by internal harmony.
For П. Sorokina civilization (or "cultural supersystems") - a type of historical integrity (system), characterized by a unity of ideas that dominate the world view, i.e. unity of ideas about nature and essence of being, about the needs of the subjects, ways and degree of their satisfaction.
F. Engels believed that civilization is the stage of social development in which the division of labor, the flow of exchange between individuals between them and the commodity production that unites both of these processes reach full blossom and revolutionize the whole of the old society.
M. A. Barg considered civilization in several senses: historical-anthropological, sociocultural, sociological, historical. Barg understood civilization as conditioned by the natural foundations of life, on the one hand, and the objective historical assumptions, on the other, the level of development of human subjectivity, manifested in the way of life of individuals, in the way they communicate with nature and themselves, as a combination of spiritual, material and moral the means by which this community equips its member in its confrontation with the outside world.
According to In. S. Stepina, civilization - a socio-cultural complex, closely related to natural conditions, based on a peculiar system of values.
Y H. N. Moiseeva civilization - a certain community of people, characterized by a certain set of values (including psychology, skills), a system of prohibitions, similarity (but not identity) of spiritual worlds, etc.
Civilization, in the opinion of s. V. Reshetnikova, is a stable cultural and historical community of people, characterized by the commonality of spiritual and moral values and cultural traditions, the similarity of material and production and socio-political development, the characteristics of the way of life and type of personality, the presence, in most cases, common ethnic features and the corresponding geographical framework.
For Г. S. Gudozhnika civilization - a philosophical and sociological category for designating a historically determined quality of society, expressed in a specific socio-production technology and the corresponding culture.
One of the concepts of civilization - the theory of cyclic dynamics ND. Kondratieff. Large cycles of economic conjuncture succeed each other every half-century (40-50 years). Within a half-century cycle, there are shorter ones. There are four or five of them, and each of them passes through a stage of equilibrium and disequilibrium. A half-century cycle is part of the "age-old" cycle. civilizational cycle, the replacement of which every 200-300 years is a change of civilizations.
Civilization, according to L. I. Semennikova, - is the main typological unit of history, a complex social system, which has its own internal development mechanism. To the factors that determine the identity of civilizations, LI Semennikova refers to the geographical environment, the system of economic management, social organization, religion (or ideology as a religion), spiritual values, political system, mentality. Mentality is the way people perceive reality in a given civilization.
Yu. V. Yakovets singles out seven world civilizations; their chronological framework: Neolithic (VII-IV millennium BC), early slave-holding (IV - second half of II millennium BC), ancient (IX century BC - the middle of the 5th century BC ), early feudal (middle V - middle of the XIV century), late feudal (preindustrial) (middle XIV-mid-XVIII century), industrial (60-90s XVIII-70s XX centuries). , the postindustrial (forecast, 80-from the XX-XX - the end of the XXI - the beginning of the XXII century).
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