Classical ideas and the basis for the formation of moral and ethical competence
The idea of humanism in classical pedagogy. The whole of classical pedagogy is permeated with the ideas of humanism, which are based on the recognition of man as the highest value. The classic of world pedagogy, the ancestor of pedagogy as a science. I. A. Komensky (1592-1670) confidently stated that the child is a microcosm in which the entire universe is enclosed.
J.-G. Rousseau (1712-1778) in his immortal work "Emile, or About Education" argues that the title of a person is higher than the title of citizen. Education should be aimed at accepting oneself and others as values. "A person who is not familiar with the pain would not be familiar with the touchingness of philanthropy, nor with the sweetness of compassion; his heart would not respond to anything, he would not live a common life, would be a monster between people. "
And. G. Pestalozzi (1749-1827) proves that a person has an innate desire to improve and develop his moral strength: the heart wants to love and believe. The forces themselves do not develop, and the educator must help the disclosure of life forces.
I am. Korczak (1878-1942) states: "Everyone has his own spark that can ignite the bonfires of happiness and truth, and in some tenth generation, perhaps he will be blazing with the fire of a genius and will burn his family, bestowing on humanity with the light of a new sun. "
"The true humanity of the educator," wrote V. A. Sukhomlinsky (1918-1970), - means skill, skill, the ability to awaken the child's thought that he has not become what it can and should be. We need to help everyone to reveal their life forces, to realize themselves in life in something socially valuable. Otherwise, a person loses the sense of significance and fullness of life.
The idea of humanism in the writings of Sh. A. Amonashvili is consistent with the idea of believing in people, in themselves, in the child; joy of communication, shared knowledge, joint work, play, recreation; respect for the personality of each child, the formation of a sense of care for people; the development of the ability to feel happy.
The idea of spirituality in the anthropology of KD Ushinsky (1824-1870). The person, according to Ushinsky, represents the unity of the soul and the body. The body is inert, it seeks to preserve itself - to be; the soul is "active", it seeks "to live", it craves activity. KD Ushinsky believed that the soul must dominate the body, the effort of will to overcome its inertia, the desire for pleasure. The classic believed that the soul is in all living things, the spirit is inherent only in man. KD Ushinsky argued that the development of spiritual aspirations is necessary through the satisfaction of bodily needs. At the heart of spiritual aspirations lie aesthetic and moral feelings. Spiritual aspirations develop in the process of free activity, only labor that is perceived by man as free, brings real happiness.
To. Ushinsky clearly connects spirituality with moral and aesthetic aspirations, while moral and aesthetic aspirations are inseparable: "all truly moral is at the same time aesthetic." Spiritual aspirations are a phenomenon of a higher order, and are inherent only to man, but man must grow to the manifestation of his spirituality.
To. Ushinsky believes that our spiritual aspirations can not always be grasped by consciousness. Even a savage is tormented by "something that", "coming out from somewhere within," which prevents him from falling asleep. These spiritual influences attach to the rational process "eternal, relentless movement" in the search for truth.
A classic plays a significant role in the upbringing of spirituality. KD Ushinsky called religion "an inexhaustible source of moral and mental development". He believed that "upbringing, if it is not just a Jesuit education, does not even have the right to create fully consummated convictions, does not even have the right to encroach on the freedom of the human soul." A great educator understands freedom not as freedom from & quot ;, but as freedom for successful implementation of activities. KD Ushinsky defined this very precisely: "To give labor to man, to work soulfully, free, to fill the soul, and to provide the means for doing this work is the complete definition of the goal of pedagogical activity."
The idea of freedom as a condition of moral development. Classics, proclaiming freedom as a condition for the development of individuality, share freedom external and internal. When J. Locke says that it is not necessary to impose on children a duty as a textbook or anything else that they should, in our opinion, study, it is, without question, the question is external freedom. External freedom is the absence of restrictions. Internal freedom is the ability to use oneself, owning oneself.
The freedom and arbitrariness of the individual should be shared. Arbitrariness is destructive both for others and for the individual. "You know," writes J.-J. Rousseau, what is the right way to make your child unhappy? This is to teach him not to meet with any rejection. " Rousseau believed that the essence of true freedom is to "give them more action by themselves and less demand from others." Thus, having accustomed from the earliest time to limit desires to the outside of one's powers, they will feel little deprivation of what is not in their power. "
Classical pedagogy associates the idea of freedom with the right of the individual to his choice. Paradoxically, Korchak's statement sounds: "Let the child sin" - this has a profound meaning: the pupil must receive experience (including the experience of repentance) that will allow him to take responsibility for the choice.
The idea of culturality. A. Diesterweg (1790- 1866) argued that "every man is a product of his time". Each person must match his time, "otherwise he will be something of a foreign body that the body rejects and removes."
The society makes demands on the person, corresponding to the level of culture on which it is currently located. "Everyone," wrote A. Diesterweg, "finds at birth its surroundings, his people, among whom he is destined to live and, at least, to be brought up at a certain stage of culture."
It is important to remember that the recognition of belonging to a particular culture, the development of national identity should not be contrary to universal human values. Speak and think: a man is my name, a German is my nickname. " In these words, A. Diesterweg laid the idea of the priority of the universal over the cultural-national. Everyone, realizing the self-worth of his national culture, must be capable of intercultural interaction.
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