Classification of learning forms
Organized education and upbringing is always carried out within the framework of a particular methodical system that receives a certain organizational design. On the basis of the analysis of the existing organizational forms of education, to date, three main systems of organizational design of the pedagogical process have been singled out in didactics (see Figure 3.15), which have four fundamental differences from one another to the following parameters:
a) the number of students;
b) the ratio of collective and individual forms of the organization of student learning activities;
c) degree of students' independence in the process of realization of educational activity;
d) the specifics of the leadership of the educational process by the teacher.
As can be seen from the figure above, three basic organizational forms of training are singled out on this basis:
Obviously, the third organizational form of training - collective - is such a form that -
Fig. 3.15. The relationship between organizational learning forms
unites all the previous ones and allows a multi-variant way to transform the form of the organization of training in accordance with the peculiarity of one or another methodological system. It is in this form of education that it is possible to create situations in which the collective trains and educates each of its members, and each member actively participates in the training and education of his colleagues in joint training activities.
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Frontal, group and individual work with students are common forms of organization of teaching and educational work. With frontal education, the teacher manages the educational and cognitive activity of the entire class, working on a single task. The pedagogical effectiveness of frontal work in many respects depends on the ability of the teacher to keep the entire student collective in sight and not to lose sight of the work of each student. Its effectiveness invariably increases if the teacher manages to create an atmosphere of creative teamwork, to maintain the attention and activity of schoolchildren. Frontal work can be used at all stages of the lesson, however, being oriented to the average student, it should be supplemented by group and individual forms.
Until the 1990s. in the educational practice, group work and pair work were very rarely used, and the work in the existing forms of the organization of the pedagogical process did not become collective in the true sense of the word. This situation was conditioned by the prevalence in educational practice as methodically developed and justified explanatory-illustrative methods of work. This practically excludes cooperation and comradely mutual assistance of students in the process of organization of educational activities in the lesson, the distribution of duties and functions at various stages of the implementation of training activities. Under the dominance of the reproducing type of teaching, all students do the same thing in each specific time interval and are not involved in the management of the educational process, which is led by one teacher, which is the responsibility of the front organization of the work.
Lesson - the main form of organization of schooling
Thus, in the modern educational system, from the standpoint of the integrity of the pedagogical process, the lesson is considered as the main form of its organization, which reflects all the advantages of a class-based system based on a combination of frontal, group and individual work. The multivariance of possible combinations of different forms of work and their transformations allows the teacher to manage the development of cognitive abilities and to shape the students' scientific outlook on the basis of observing the principle of systematic and consistent, as well as to stimulate various types of activity of schoolchildren, including those in the organization of extracurricular and homework. Due to this, the students at the lesson master not only the system of knowledge, skills and skills, but also the methods of cognitive activity themselves, acquiring the necessary level of competence.
In Fig. 3.16 shows the structure of the organization of the activity of the teacher and the student in the learning process in the lesson, which directly and indirectly sets the parameters of the student's activity and outside the school space.
A lesson is a form of organization of the pedagogical process, in which the teacher is guided by a collective cognizant for a specified time -
Fig. 3.16. The structure of the activity of the teacher and student in the learning process in the lesson
and other activities of a permanent group of students (class), taking into account the characteristics of each of them, using the types, means and methods of work that create favorable conditions for:
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a) mastering all the students of the basics of the subject studied directly in the learning process;b) the upbringing and development of the cognitive abilities and spiritual forces of each student both during the lesson and beyond.
In each lesson, you can distinguish its main elements (links, stages), which are characterized by such different activities of the teacher and students that are able to determine the structure of the lesson in all possible modifications with different combinations.
The structure of the lesson should be understood as the ratio of the elements of the lesson in their specific sequence and the relationship between them. The structure of the lesson can be simple and rather complicated, depending on the content of the teaching material, the didactic purpose (or goals) of the lesson, the age characteristics of the students, and the characteristics of the class as a collective. Let's give a classification of lessons according to BP Esipov (Table 3.6).
Classification of lessons (according to BP Esipov)
The main purpose of the lesson
1. Introductory lesson
Give a general idea of ...
2. Lesson of studying and primary fastening of new knowledge
3. The lesson of fixing knowledge and ways of actions
Strengthen knowledge, form skills, skills
4. A lesson in the integrated application of knowledge and methods of action
Develop the ability to apply knowledge in a similar situation, another or independently
5. Lesson of generalization and systematization of knowledge and methods of activity
Summarize individual knowledge, bring them into the system
6. The lesson of checking and evaluating knowledge and ways of doing things
Determine the level of assimilation of ZUNUs and their complex application
7. The lesson of the correction of knowledge and ways students work
Work out the correctness of the reproduction of knowledge and teaching and cognitive actions
The lesson of familiarizing learners with new material or the message (learning) of new knowledge is a lesson, the content of which is new material unknown to learners. In some cases, the teacher himself sets forth new material, in others - independent work of students under the guidance of the teacher is conducted, in the third - both are practiced.
The Knowledge Lesson is a lesson aimed at secondary understanding of previously learned knowledge in order to strengthen it. In some cases, students comprehend and deepen their knowledge of new sources, in others they solve new problems according to rules known to them, in the third they reproduce previously acquired knowledge verbally and in writing, in the fourth they make reports on certain issues from the passed for the purpose of deeper and their lasting assimilation, etc.Lessons in the development and consolidation of skills is a series of lessons in a row, which further has its continuation in the study of other topics in the structure of other lessons of familiarization and consolidation of knowledge. In generalizing lessons there is a generalization and systematization of knowledge on the most significant aspects from the previous material, filling in the existing gaps in students' knowledge and revealing the most important ideas of the course. Such lessons are held at the end of the study of individual topics, sections and training courses in general.
control lessons, which allows the teacher to identify students' in a certain area, to identify shortcomings in the mastery of the material, help to outline the ways of further work. From the student, control lessons require the application of all of his knowledge, skills and knowledge on this topic.Combined or mixed lessons have become most common in the practice of the school, and the lesson in a modern school equipped with modern equipment and having a teacher with a modern level of training is always combined, because it allows you to solve several didactic tasks.
In Fig. 3.17 presents an approximate structure of the modern combined lesson, which includes all its stages: analysis (checking) of homework and interviewing students; presentation (study) of new material; primary verification of assimilation during the consolidation of new knowledge in training exercises; repetition of the previously studied; verification and assessment of students' knowledge (control); assignment to the house. As can be seen from the above diagram, the structure emphasizes the beginning and the end of the lesson, which in time can occupy a negligible amount of time, but in their psychological significance are decisive for the whole further course of the lesson.
Mandatory elements of the beginning and end of the lesson in all the types of classes described above are the organizational moment and the summing up of the lesson. The organizational moment presupposes the creation of a working environment, the actualization of the motives of learning activity and attitudes towards perception, the setting of goals and ensuring their acceptance by students, the comprehension and emotional memorization of the material.
Fig. 3.17. Stages of the current lesson and the system of their relationship
At the stage of summing up the results of the lesson, it is important to record the achievement of goals, the measure of participation in their achievement of all students and each individual, assess the work of students and determine the prospects for further work.
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