Classification of problem situations
In accordance with the three bases identified above, Matyushkin offers a multidimensional model for the classification of problem situations.
According to the type of unknown structural element of the action, AM Matyushkin believes, three types of problem situations can be distinguished:
1. Problem situations in which the unknown constitutes the laws of the object of action. In problem situations of this type, it is necessary to discover a new pattern, attitude, etc., necessary to explain some phenomenon or to prove the truth of a certain situation. Such situations constitute a large class of theoretical problem situations.
2. Problem situations in which the unknown is the mode of action. Examples of such problematic situations are numerous situations with a pre-known goal of actions that constitute a thing, state, process, etc. To solve such problem situations it is necessary to find a new way of achieving the goal. This class of problem situations is widely represented both in various types of professional activity, and in learning situations. In experimental studies of thinking, problem situations of this type are described in sufficient detail, for example, for various kinds of manipulative problems ("puzzles", "games", etc.) in which the initial and final situations are known, but the optimal ways of transforming the initial situation in the final.
3. Problem situations of the third type are characterized by the fact that the unknown is the conditions of action. They are represented by a wide class of situations arising at different stages of the training of the action, when the mode of action is known, but the general conditions determining the structure of its mental regulation are still unknown. Special cases of such situations are situations that arise, for example, in the process of formation of speech, mathematical, complex professional skills.
With further differentiation, the action plane can be represented more in detail. As a result, the system of problem situations will be determined by the specific features of the subject of the action, the specific ways and conditions for the implementation of the assimilated action.
Problem situations can be classified not only for specific reasons, but also for a number of non-specific reasons. The most important non-specific grounds for classifying problem situations are extreme conditions for the performance of an action. They often lead to disruption of the established forms of mental regulation and require the formation of new forms of psychic regulation. This type of problem situation is typical for various types of professional human activities.
Conditions for creating problem situations in learning
The general didactic method of creating conditions that cause problematic situations in teaching is the setting before the students of special study assignments (theoretical and practical tasks, questions, etc.). These tasks were called problematic. The psychological specificity of problematic study assignments lies in the fact that they precede the assimilation of new knowledge. The identification of this stage (preceding the process of learning new knowledge) constitutes an important contribution of research in the field of problematic learning to the general theory of learning.
The process of assimilation, according to supporters of ideas of problem training, is carried out as a productive process. He assumes the student's performance of special problematic tasks, which cause him to cognitively need new knowledge. This ensures his cognitive activity.Supporters of ideas of problem training also noted that the scheme of the learning process, proposed by the formation of associative psychology, is too simplistic. It does not correspond to the true ideas about the laws of the processes of thought and assimilation. Recall that in accordance with her mastering begins with the presentation of the student ready knowledge. The stage preceding the process of assimilation of new knowledge was not previously identified either as a necessary stage of the student's learning activity or as a way of teaching the teacher. To organize the activities of the teacher and student at this stage of the exercise there was not developed a special system of study assignments.
It is important to note that a number of specialists of that time believed that setting problem assignments to students already in itself provides for the emergence of problematic situations in training. Experimental studies of productive processes of thought have shown (III Kalmykova, AM Matyushkin, etc.) that this is not so. The necessary psychological condition for the emergence of a problematic situation in training is the organization of the student's activity in the performance of the assigned problem task. A problematic situation arises only in the process of carrying out a problem assignment to the student himself.
To implement the principles of problem management of learning processes at this stage are necessary:
- the development of such tasks that precede the process of assimilation, their implementation should lead to the emergence of problematic situations, the appearance in the student of the cognitive need for new knowledge;
- the development of such methods of the teacher's work that allow to present knowledge known to the teacher as unknown and necessary for the students.
The ability of the teacher to such an organization of student learning activities is, from the point of view of the concept of problem training, one of the most important components of his professional abilities.
The content of education, modeled on this strategy, involves the presentation of educational material in such a way that children, firstly, could identify the problem with the help of the teacher, secondly, to find solutions together with it, and, finally, in the third, its decide. To do this, they need to be taught the skills to see problems, but in the learning process this is not an end in itself, but only one of the means. In order for the learning process to perform one of its main functions - "teaching", it is necessary that the problem contains a certain cognitive charge, and perhaps it is only when this problem is previously worked out by the teacher. That is, the program of educational activity is a coherent logical series, which includes a set of consistently solved educational problems.
The special methodical techniques developed by the supporters of this approach make it possible to achieve that the task proposed by the teacher turns into an internal problem of the child himself. This, in turn, creates prerequisites for analyzing the options for its solution, which in itself is the next stage of the educational work and an essential component of the educational system. Further, in full accordance with the logic, it is necessary to evaluate the merits of each solution variant. After this, a generalization of the found, etc. usually follows.
Essential for educational practice in terms of development of these concepts was the position established in psychological studies that the decisive factor in the development of productive thinking is not knowledge itself (volume, versatility, etc.), but methods for their assimilation. This idea was put forward and supported by domestic researchers (AM Matyushkin, ZI Kalmykov, etc.), both foreign and foreign (J. Bruner et al.).
The process of problematic learning of new knowledge is a didactically organized process of "satisfaction" cognitive needs caused by students. It can be implemented, as noted in didactic and psychological studies, in the form of three basic forms of learning:
a) messages learned by the teacher (statement);b) the joint activity of the teacher and students in the "extraction" new knowledge;
c) the organization of students' own research activities, leading to the subjective discovery of a new (research).
The authors of the concept of problem training emphasize that the highlighted types of problematic teaching can be regarded as the main stages of human learning. From the initial training, where the problematic presentation should dominate, to the education in the senior classes of the school and the university, where the dominant activity is its own research activity.
It is on this basis, according to the concept of problem-based learning, that the methods of teaching corresponding to the growing creative possibilities of man should be classified. At the first stages of training, the most appropriate way of problem-based learning that ensures the student's emergence of a problem situation is the organization of his own practical, substantive activities to fulfill the tasks assigned by the teacher. In the subsequent stages of training (as the theoretical activity of children develops), it becomes possible to set up such problem assignments for students that do not require direct practical activity, and such tasks can be performed by the teacher together with the students. In the upper grades and in higher education institutions, with sufficient formation of theoretical thinking, the main way of problem training is a problematic presentation of knowledge that makes up a report, a lecture, a conversation, etc.
Thus, when analyzing the methods of problem-based learning, it is advisable to classify them in accordance with these increasing opportunities for students-from the direct organization of the performance of problem assignments by students in primary schools to problematic exposition in high school and university.
The simplest and most adequate form of problematic learning, implemented as an imitation of the process of discovering new knowledge, is a problematic knowledge message by the teacher who responds to the problem posed and "opens" something unknown, the need for which arose in students. The mechanism of problem training in this case can be expressed in such a sequence: the teacher poses a problem for children and shows a sample of scientific knowledge on her example. In the course of its solution, he reveals the embryology of scientific knowledge, and students carefully follow the logical accuracy of this movement, while absorbing the new information for themselves, and theoretically mastering the ways of obtaining it. The main thing in this case is to present the discoveries already made in a meaningful and accessible form for the students and give them the opportunity to experience the enthusiasm and drama that accompanied these important achievements. The learning of new knowledge by the students in this case must be experienced by them as their own discovery of this knowledge.
The rules for creating problem situations in training, according to experts in the field of problem-based learning, are as follows:
1. Students should be offered such tasks, in the performance of which they should discover new knowledge or actions to be learned. The tasks are based on the already existing knowledge of the students and contain only one unknown element. The unknown is a pattern or general conditions of action that cause a cognitive need.
2. Problem assignments should correspond to intellectual abilities of students, and the degree of their difficulty is determined by the measure of novelty and generality. The more potential a student has, the more difficult it must be for him to have a problem.
3. A problem assignment should precede the explanation of the training material.
4. Problem assignments include training tasks, questions and practical assignments. Neither the question nor the task in themselves is a problematic situation.
5. The same problem situation can be caused by different types of tasks (theoretical or practical).
6. The emerging problem situation is formulated by the teacher, indicating the reason for the non-fulfillment of the training task.
Psychologist VA Krutetsky singled out the levels and criteria of problem training. Among them - the degree of theoretical preparedness of students, as well as the willingness of the teacher to conduct problem lessons.
The first level of problem training is characterized by the fact that the teacher poses a problem, formulates it and directs the student to seek a solution. The second is when the teacher points out the problem, and the students try to formulate it, and then resolve it. The third is related to the activities of the students themselves, who first formulate the problem, then analyze it and decide.
Nevertheless, the practice of domestic problem-based education was built primarily on the fact that the teacher selected and practiced the problem, as a rule, not trusting it to the children. Later, in the lesson, he sought to interest her children. His main concern in this case is to make the educational problem their own problem. Thematically, this problem was usually kept within the framework of one academic subject. Often the problem required the children to carry out their own observations and experiments, but these observations and experiments were aimed not so much at finding new knowledge, either as creating a contradiction between the ordinary knowledge of children and the actual state of affairs, or confirming what has long been studied and known in the study). All this allows us to consider problem training in domestic execution as a stage that precedes research training.
Ways to create problem situations in a lesson
One of the most frequently used classifications of ways to create problem situations in the classroom was offered by the famous scientist MI Makhmutov.
Problem situations in training, according to him, can arise as follows:
1. When students collide with life phenomena, facts that require a theoretical explanation.
2. When organizing the practical work of students.
3. When students are encouraged to analyze life events that lead them to collide with previous everyday ideas about these phenomena.
4. When formulating hypotheses.
5. When students are encouraged to compare, contrast and contrast.
6. When encouraging students to advance the generalization of new facts.
7. For research assignments.
The problem situation arises as a result of the inability to perform a new task with the help of known actions and is experienced by the person as a cognitive need for a new, unknown, but necessary knowledge, mode of action, etc.
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