Components of educational technologies: methods, methods, tools and forms of collective learning
Returning to the structure of the educational technology presented in Fig. 3.3, we will dwell in more detail on its component, containing the forms, methods, methods and tools of training, since they determine the pragmatic aspects of the implementation of technological models.
Teaching methods are ways of teaching the teacher and organizing educational and cognitive activities of students aimed at mastering the teaching material.
In modern pedagogy, scientists, by defining teaching methods, tend to emphasize their separate essential aspects. So Yu. K. Babansky defines educational methods as ways of the interrelated activity of teachers and pupils in achieving the objectives of education, upbringing and development.
From the point of view of I. Ya. Lerner, the method of instruction is a system of successive interrelated actions of the teacher and students, ensuring the assimilation of the content of education.
It should be emphasized that classical didactics saw in the method of teaching mainly the actions of the teacher in transferring knowledge to students. Modern pedagogy, based on the understanding of learning as interaction between the teacher and students, determines the methods of teaching as ways of joint activity, as a system of interrelated actions of the teacher and students to achieve learning goals.
The method, in turn, consists of learning techniques that define as part of the method, the means and form of its embodiment, the variable, individualized implementation of the method in the teacher's experience. As a rule, under the method are understood rather short-term local pedagogical actions: the use of examples, analogies, problem questions, metaphors and comparisons. At the same time, the boundaries between the method and the reception are uncertain, mobile.
There are many classifications of methods on various grounds. In particular, according to the source of knowledge (E.Ya. Golant and others), the methods can be divided into narrative, verbal (narrative, lecture, conversation, discussion), visual (demonstration, illustration), practical (exercise, laboratory and practical work)
According to the character of cognitive activity I. Ya. Lerner, Μ. II. Skatkin distinguish explanatory-illustrative, reproductive, exploratory (heuristic), research methods and problematic exposition.
According to the place in the structure of the teaching activity, Yu. K. Babansky was proposed to classify methods based on the functional significance of the components of the learning process (methods of organizing and implementing learning activities, methods of stimulating and motivating learners, methods of control and self-control of learning activity). >
One of the ways to stimulate the cognitive activity of students are the "active methods", in which the activities of students are productive, creative, searching. These include didactic games, the analysis of specific situations, the solution of problematic tasks, role play, and so on. The subsequent chapters of the textbook will be devoted to detailing these methods.
The teaching methodology is a set of techniques and methods that are specifically organized and used to achieve specific pedagogical goals (mastering the topic, the course, the formation of competences, etc.). Unlike technology, the methodology provides greater freedom and variability in the use of methods and tools of learning.
An important trend of modern pedagogy is the use of "intensive techniques", which presuppose the organization of training in short terms with long sessions of "immersion", using active methods. Activation and intensification of training also means reliance on emotions and subconsciousness. With the help of psychological training, intensive communication, perception, processing, memorization and application of information are activated.
Organizational forms of education are a necessary component of education. This category indicates the outside of the organization of the learning process, which determines when, where, who and how is being trained. If the principles of instruction indicate general requirements for the learning process, the methods explain the essence of the learning interaction, then the forms determine how to organize training in real conditions. The form of education is defined as a special design of the learning process, conditioned by its content, methods, means and all other components of the process.
In modern pedagogy, there are general forms of training (collective, group, individual), forms of organization of the educational process (lesson, subject circles, technical creativity, student scientific societies, excursions, etc.). The form of the organization of training is a historically developed, stable and logically completed organization of the pedagogical process characterized by systematic and integral, self-development, personality-activity character, constancy of the participants, presence of a certain regime of holding.
Scientists have identified such grounds for classifying the forms of study: the number and composition of students, the place of study, the duration of the academic work. For these reasons, the forms of education are divided into individual, collective, group, classroom and extracurricular, school and extracurricular, principal and auxiliary, respectively. This classification allows to some extent to regulate the diversity of forms of education. The totality of forms of training, which has developed in certain historical conditions and possesses some unity and integrity, constitutes the organizational system of instruction. A significant number of such systems are known in the history of education.
The class-lesson system is the earliest for the new time and is widespread in the world practice. The creator of it as an expanded system was Ya. A. Komensky in the 17th century. The class and the lesson as didactic concepts have been around 400 years. The class-lesson system has withstood the test of life for several centuries and, despite the constant sharp criticism, has been preserved to this day almost all over the world. It has undoubted positive qualities, such as simple organizational structure, economy, simplicity of management. However, at the same time, it has many negative aspects: insufficient account of individual differences, strict organizational structure, often creating a formal approach to the lesson.
The main training activity, the organizational unit of education in the general education system is a lesson, which is usually devoted to one subject, a topic. However, with the introduction of intersubject integration, individual lessons can be integrated, including the problems of different subject areas.
In contrast to the school, in the systems of primary, secondary and higher vocational education there are several types of classroom lectures: lecture, seminar, practical lesson, group exercise, laboratory work, test, exam.
From the point of view of the organization of training at the level of an educational institution, its forms are distinguished such as full-time, part-time, evening education, external studies (self-study, involving internal types of intermediate and final attestations).
Forms and methods of training should be selected in such a way as to realize the opportunities of the developing, search model within the technological framework. In accordance with this, the most important requirements for them should be problematic, providing opportunities for independent analysis, creative self-realization in the process of synthesis in the project activity.
Of great importance is the way the material is presented. If these are traditional forms of learning, for example lectures, then they should ensure the systemic perception of students. In this case, it is necessary to take into account all the main channels of perception of information: visual, auditory, kinesthetic - sensory. And here it is necessary to help the learner to define his dominant type of perception and, if possible, develop the others. After all, directly in the process of perception, the primary processing of information is carried out. Defining here are the style of thinking, the type of intelligence, which are discussed in Ch. 2. Each intellectual type gravitates toward one of the components of the "languages" basis. thinking:
- subject (concrete, constructive);
- shaped (visual, physical);
- semantic (verbal, descriptive);
- abstract (signed, formalized).
All this must be taken into account already at the stage of presenting information in preparation for classes. Otherwise, there may be a situation where trainees do not understand the teacher, do not perceive the material in the textbook, because it corresponds, for example, to the theoretical type of thinking, and the figurative, the subject-matter does not. That is why analytical geometry, as a rule, is perceived by students more easily than sections of higher algebra, for example group theory. From this point of view, a special technique of interest is presented in the book by Yu. V. Pukhnachev and Yu. P. Popov "Mathematics without formulas". The authors claim: "Mathematical formulas are only a convenient language for the presentation of ideas and methods of mathematics. Themselves, these ideas can be described using familiar and intuitive images from the surrounding life & quot ;. Thus, mathematical abstractions are translated in concrete real forms, easily perceived by students with a realistic, pragmatic style of thinking. How here not to recall the old good concept "physical meaning", sometimes undeservedly forgotten.
Constructive analysis of the adequacy of forms and methods shows that the most organically fit into developing technologies are gaming methods, which will be discussed in detail in later chapters.
Methods and techniques are used in close unity with the means of teaching (didactic means), which are part of the pedagogical process, the means of work of teachers, the elements of the learning environment. These include school infrastructure - buildings, plots, equipment, equipment, educational supplies, as well as methodological support for the educational process, including documents, educational and thematic plans, educational programs and other teaching materials.
Thus, as material training facilities, material objects are singled out, including artificial ones, specially created for educational purposes, involved in the educational process as carriers of information and tools for the activities of the teacher and students.
The main functions of the learning tools are information, training, control, as well as motivational and optimizing the learning process. They form the developing educational environment.
At the present time, a variety of software products for educational purposes have been developed: automated training systems, electronic training courses, electronic educational complexes, electronic textbooks, digital educational resources, information and reference systems, banks and databases. In Fig. 3.5 provides a version of the classification of existing software. With the development of multimedia technologies, the most important, obviously, is the principle of optimal use of their capabilities.
In particular, demonstration programs allow a natural way to show the processes in the dynamics of their development. They are especially necessary when other means can not be achieved.
Fig. 3.3. Classification of software components that are elements of educational technology
Computer tools and models are practically indispensable in those cases when the learner can physically observe processes directly.
In conclusion, it is necessary to dwell briefly on the so-called quasi-creative programs of the type of the "inventing machine", based on the methods of the theory of solving inventive problems. They have a certain heuristic ability to find original, close to optimal technical and managerial solutions. However, their capabilities, of course, are not unlimited.
Thus, in the chapter the main components of educational technologies were considered. The actual technological organization of the educational process has been analyzed in detail in the description of the technological model. The issues of technological design of the educational process will be considered in the future. Summarizing the contents of the chapter, we can draw a number of conclusions.
In modern pedagogy two main didactic models are distinguished: search (research) and technological. In accordance with the formulated principle of pedagogical complementarity, a highly effective process of developmental learning can not be realized within only one of them - it is necessary to combine them, to complement each other.
An important principle of personal developmental learning is the transition from the basic goals of acquiring a given amount of knowledge, skills, skills to the goals of the formation of intellectual (professional) competence, which is a special form of organization of knowledge and intellectual skills that provides the opportunity to effectively solve professional problems in different conditions.
In the system plan, the task of developing the personality of students, their intellectual abilities, creative potential should be solved with the help of appropriate didactic models and technologies.
The necessary component of this concept is the organization of psychological support for the educational process, the main purpose of which is to study the personality traits of the trainees, the formation of individual educational trajectories, assistance in developing the strengths of the intellect, harmonizing the personality.
One of the main features of the meta-technology of developmental learning is a comprehensive study of the trainee's personality, the definition of leading strategies and styles of thinking. These data are used to optimize the educational process. In addition, in the training process, an operational diagnosis of the achievement of private goals and the correction of training procedures and material content are organized.Designing, developing and implementing effective educational technologies is a complex process that requires the pooling of efforts of specialists - educators, psychologists, sociologists, programmers.
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