Concepts, essence and goals of modern learning. Leading factors and indicators of personal development
The basic meaning of the concepts of modern learning lies in the transition from the paradigm of "filling" trained by the knowledge necessary for successful professional activity, to the paradigm of personality development, forming the basis for achieving the peaks of professional mastery. In accordance with this main goal of modern education is the formation of a creative personality, prepared for productive activities in the professional field, capable of self-development, self-education, adaptation to the changing conditions of a high-tech society and ultimately to maximize the realization of one's creative potential in the professional sphere and life.
In solving the general problem of personality development, the following aspects should be highlighted, which should be reflected in educational practice.
1. Axiological, assuming the formation of initial values based on the ideals of truth, goodness, beauty, harmony.
2. Teleological, in the form of global and local life goals and attitudes.
3. Praxeological, integrating the main ideas of the first two aspects and realizing them in educational and professional practice in the form of a system-activity approach.
4. Culturological, in the broadest sense, it is especially necessary to distinguish such a component of it as a communicative culture.
5. The aspect of self-knowledge, effective self-control, self-control, assuming control of one's own state, health and intellectual functions at the conscious and subconscious levels, in particular, management of higher psychological processes: memory, perception, imagination , thinking.
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Thus, within the framework of the general task of personal development, one of the central tasks is the task of developing the intellect of the learner. Within the framework of this task, it is necessary to distinguish the following components:
1. Development of general intellectual abilities, that determine the success of productive professional activity. It is supposed to develop natural inclinations, the formation of new abilities. Approaches to measuring and assessing abilities, identifying and determining the increase in the level of abilities will be considered in the future.
2. The formation of the most important indicators of intelligence and the corresponding mental structures. The launch of self-development mechanisms, the formation of an active search style of thinking and activity. In this context, the most important development and optimization of the interaction of conscious and unconscious mechanisms of intellectual activity.
Let's take a closer look at the indicators of intellectual development, the variety of which is confirmed by the earlier analysis. As a result of the reduction of this set, the most important integrated indicators are identified, which can be classified as:
- cognitive and social activity
- the level of personal self-esteem, self-awareness;
- the efficiency of self-regulation.
The most significant among these indicators, of course, is competence. In Ch. 1 the essence of the competence approach has been examined in sufficient detail, in this section it is advisable to detail this rather complex indicator in the context of educational practice. Earlier it was also noted that competence is an integrative education that characterizes the level of mastering knowledge, skills, skills.
From the point of view of the organization of the educational process, the working definition of competence used by us as a working definition can be the most adequate, according to which intellectual competence means a special form of organization of knowledge and intellectual skills that makes it possible to make effective decisions in a certain professional field in different including extreme) conditions.
As the main characteristics (private indicators) of competence, the following can be distinguished:
1) the set of knowledge that corresponds to the sufficiency conditions for productive professional activity;
2) the systematic nature of the organization and structuring of knowledge, the comprehension of real connections between elements, classification;
3) taxonomy of knowledge, isolation of the main nodal elements;
4) the relativity (dynamism) of the relationships of the knowledge field, the possibility of updating both content and relationships under the influence of objective facts;
5) fundamental knowledge, determining the role of general principles, ideas;
6) Methodology, pragmatism, unobstructed bundles knowledge-activity & quot ;;
7) reflexivity of knowledge.Unfortunately, modern university and school programs are still not sufficiently focused on the development of intellectual qualities, united by indicators of competence and creativity, until now their main goal remains the transfer of a certain, ever-increasing volume of knowledge and necessary skills. However, it is known that lack of knowledge is often a powerful stimulant of creative activity. At the same time, the load of well-assimilated knowledge and intellectual skills forms a number of professional stereotypes and psychological barriers leading to conservatism, immunity to innovation (in more detail, the problem of stereotyping is considered in the monograph by A. V. Dolmatov). This fact once again emphasizes the importance of the first formulated principle of the necessary sufficiency of the compulsory knowledge acquired in the learning process. Another thing is that the types, structure, dynamics of this knowledge must meet the requirements formulated above. Therefore, in the structure of the learning process, appropriate blocks, modules, technologies, methodological methods that ensure the solution of this problem must be provided.
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In general, the structure of the concept of modern education in the context of the development of the individual must include the following components:
- the main goals, principles and patterns of developing education;
- the content of education (the structure of the information field, the principles of its formation, structuring, optimization);
- developing educational technologies, the methodology of their development and application;
- effective ways of pedagogical interaction of subjects of the educational process;
- psychological support of the educational process, the main purpose of which is to study the personality traits of the trainees, the formation of individual educational trajectories, assistance in developing the strengths of the intellect, harmonizing the personality.
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