Conditions and factors of education, Causes and effects...

Chapter 5. Conditions and factors for the derivation

As a result of studying this chapter, the learner must:

- know conditions and learning factors; conditions and factors of upbringing; the hierarchy of the factors of eduction; the law of minimum; complex influence of factors;

- know how to identify the conditions and factors of education; analyze cause-effect relationships; to calculate the productivity of education on the basis of current factors; Use the teacher's predictive ruler;

- own the methodology of integrated accounting of factors and conditions; methods of factor analysis of education; methods of optimizing the educational system.

Diagnostic indices:

The minimum time required (in minutes) to study the topic material is 98.

The difficulty (in conventional units from 1.00) of the material being studied is 1.00.

The time (in minutes) required to fully master the knowledge is 196.

5.1. Causes and consequences

The flow and results of the educational process (education and upbringing) are influenced by a large number of various causes. There are so many of them, they are so diverse and often veiled by the attendant, that doubt involuntarily creeps in, and whether it is even possible to understand this unimaginably complex interweaving of influences. Knowingly, education and upbringing are called art. Only a well-developed pedagogical intuition, a trained teacher's flair allow the best of our colleagues, masters of pedagogical work to correctly guess the direction and action of the main causes and, based on their accounting, to achieve the intended results. If the educational process develops according to a scenario unfamiliar to the teacher, it leads to unforeseen, often undesirable consequences.

There is no scientific theory that allows us to objectively analyze the impact of all the causes of eduction, as long as there is no other way for science than gradually, step by step, overcoming endless obstacles, to approach a non-contradictory picture of the complex influence of all causes on the flow and effectiveness educational process. If the pedagogues aspire to learn how to manage the educational process, to achieve the required level of training and education in a timely manner, then they must fully master the knowledge of all those reasons on which the final results depend. There is no other way in principle.

In the current pedagogical terminology, the reasons that influence the flow and results of the didactic process are usually called factors. But is any reason a factor? Let's consider an example. The student lost interest in algebra, which led to a decrease in his performance in this subject. As it turned out, impetus was the tactlessness of the teacher, expressed in constant fault-finding, limitations, and lowering of grades. What is the reason for the deterioration in results - a decrease in the teacher's interest or lack of tact? Which is more important?

Unfortunately, teachers rarely reflect on such issues. The influence of all causes is a priori recognized equal, and the significance of the findings is determined only by the logic and validity of the evidence, but by no means the meaning of the cause itself. Very little attention is paid in pedagogy to the allocation and ranking of causes. Is it not from this that the cunning conclusion is that there are no trifles in teaching and upbringing? At the same time, practice does not confirm the equivalence of all impacts. J. Korczak gave an example. Imagine that the artist painted a picture in which all objects of the same size and everything in the foreground, and the person, the house, and the tail of the squirrel are all of the same size. What would you say about such an artist? And what do we have to say about the teacher, who either does not know much about these reasons, or identifies the motivation for learning with the design of the classroom?

In order to define the concept of the educational factor, its importance and influence, it is necessary to have a common basis (basis) for comparing all the reasons that are distinguished in relation to this basis. It is quite obvious that the basis (basis) must be sought in the purpose of education, in the sake of which it is carried out - in effectiveness, success, productivity. The concept of productivity of the educational process is the most capacious and definite. Productivity, , which is expressed in the products of the educational process, is characterized by a change in the (increment) of schooling and upbringing. It is to this notion that the bind factors that in this case will be called product-forming, product-producing (from genes - born)

The product of education has a complex structure, which is formed also by specific knowledge, skills, skills, and such generalized qualities as world outlook, erudition, mental qualities, ability to learn, professional orientation, and elements of upbringing - diligence, diligence, responsibility, How much product and quality will be produced in the educational process, what will be its productivity, depends entirely on the specific circumstances, on what conditions and factors and how intertwined in interaction, in the general the process of teachers and students.

In the psychological-pedagogical literature there are various designations of product-related causes - influence, action, cause, quotient, variable, parameter, functional unit, metric etc. In the future, we will use the term product-related cause, the content of which is similar to the term used in international didactics "variable of educational (didactic, educational) process."

By the product-causing cause, we will understand an arbitrarily small, but necessarily separate cause, further dismemberment of which into component parts is impossible without loss of meaning. This product-derived cause can be considered as elementary. Product-related causes can change during the educational process, acquire different values, the intensity of their influence also does not remain unchanged.

From the concept of product cause a logically non-contradictory transition to other concepts is easily accomplished. A clear idea of ​​how this happens will be obtained if we imagine productogenic causes in the form of arrows (vectors), the direction of which indicates the occurrence of larger aggregations, and the length can be identified with the intensity (magnitude) of the influence (Figure 13).

So, factor is a significant reason, formed from at least two product-related causes of one group. From the associations of individual factors, common factors are formed. The general didactic factor, usually absorbs a significant number of product-related causes and may contain several didactic factors. With the further consolidation of common factors, complex, are formed that combine a significant number of product-related causes, as well as factors and common factors. At the top of the hierarchy there are general factors combining all product-specific causes of a certain group, previously combined into complex, general and single factors. There are also specific factors which, for whatever reason, can not be reduced to any productogenic cause or included in a common or complex factor. Very often specific means "unique", "special".

Fig. 13. The hierarchy of factors of education

By highlighting productogenic causes and factors, an effective resolution of pedagogical problems is achieved. First, we more or less fully delineate the range of factors affecting human health. Secondly, we can rank these reasons, i.e. arrange them according to the degree of influence. Third, we can build models of the complex influence of factors on the productivity of the process and make the necessary calculations. But the main reason for isolating productogenic causes is to understand the relationship of each factor to the overall productivity of the educational process. This opens the way to the creation of a genuinely scientific theory that provides diagnosis, forecasting, designing of the educational process, where each reason takes its place in the overall complex interaction. So you want to compare all this with the decoding of the human genome, when the action of each gene was established and scientists were able to add or remove individual genes, thus changing the end result.

Constructing factors

From the product-causal factors, learning factors are constructed (how exactly this is done, we will tell below). Most factors have a very complex internal structure. For example, consider the internal structure a very important factor of learning-education - motivation (Table 5).

Table 5

The structure of the factor motivation expressed through product-induced causes

No.

n/a

Product-borne

reasons

Motivation

Positive

Negative

1

Motivation

I & quot ;, can

Must & quot ;, must

2

Features

Positive

Repulsive,

3

Evasion capability

No, weakly expressed and not long

Strong, frequent and stable

4

Activity Restriction

Not required

Required

5

Tempo

Lively, fast

Slow, sluggish

6

Duration

Significant

Minor

7

Disgust

Weak

Strong

8

Wealth of fantasy

Major

Minor

9

Intelligent

Flexibility

Accessibility and ease of transition from one thought action to another

Stillness, rigidity of thinking

10

Cognitive organization

Meaningful, calculated

Mechanical

11

Observation

High

Low

12

Emotional coloring and mood

Positive attitude, satisfaction

Depression

13

Need for effort

Minor

Significant

14

Type of pedagogical situation

Attraction to the goal

Pressuring

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