Conditions for effective learning: practical advice
Knowledge in our brain is stored in the form of associations, symbols and images, therefore:
- We will learn to store information by associating it with associations. We will not be choosy in the choice of associations, even if they are simple, primitive, even meaningless, if only they are firmly stuck in memory; this is the first step in the development of unclaimed abilities of our brain;
- associate an object with its image, color, smell, etc., using as many as possible "memory trees" and brain properties; Sing the formulas to the motifs of popular songs; dance the DNA model dance "so that the trainees see and understand how it is twisted;
- we will use association associations - directories in subdirectories; it is important to remember only their abbreviated names, the rest can be obtained by deploying information.
Does the associative theory of thinking and memory conflict with the theory of programmed brain work? No, they complement each other. The first shows how the brain learns knowledge, and the second - how this knowledge is sent to long-term storage and stored in the bins of the mind. Today, scientists are trying to gain access to the cherished package of programs through which each of us and all of humanity as a whole is governed. However, they do not always understand that programs are blocked, and they mistakenly believe that access to these programs is open to everyone. Access to programs is strictly individual and is associated with the level of development of consciousness. Collective access to the management of these programs is not possible. In the general information field there is only current, working information, technological programs, completely useless for us.
Software package invested each of us in our individual soul and reliably protected from outside interference. Even a person, having not reached a certain level of development, can not interfere with his software. For people with a range of consciousness of 2-5%, programs of their higher "I" are not available. Access to them is blocked, for by their ignorance and lack of understanding of the general processes of the universe, a person can inflict irreparable harm. And not only to himself, but to the whole process, of which he is a particle. Only by opening your consciousness at least 45%, out of control of stereotypes and becoming, ultimately, a person, a person gets access to the management of their individual programs. Full access to them is possible only after the discovery of consciousness by 100%.
Such a construction of our consciousness, if it turns out to be correct, will force the teachers to look not for ways to manage associations to memorize new knowledge, but how to unlock programs where this knowledge is already stored.
It is still difficult for us to imagine that our brain does not think, and everything that we learn is perceived from the energy-information field with the help of brain receivers tuned to the wave of the Cosmos. Too unusual is everything, and even remotely not related to our current ways of acquiring knowledge.
However, we still have to temper the ardor. We will adhere to the tried and tested point of view: our intellect lives in our brain. It depends on us how it develops, on what level of intellectual activity each of us goes. More about the new horizons of education and upbringing is told in the book "Energoinformational Pedagogy".
Intellect is primarily a ability to solve problems , create new products that are not in the past experience. There are other definitions of intelligence, but they all imply a person's ability to generate a new one, self-guessing before the decision, logically to come to conclusions. What is being advertised today as intelligence on television, for example, in the program "The smartest", is not an intellect. A person who has read something and well remembered, and then at the right time remembered what he read, it is necessary to call not the "cleverest", but the "most remembrance". A person with a good memory can really remember a large amount of information, while often not able to solve the simplest tasks that require logical mental actions. Good memory and intelligence are a rare combination. It is this distribution of memory and mind that makes us different from each other. One has more memory, another has mind.
At the heart of modern ideas about the intellectual activity of schoolchildren lies the theory of intellect, put forward in 1983 by the professor of psychology of Harvard University G. Gardner, who is convinced that each person has not one intelligence but several. And some types of intelligence are present in a larger number, others are less evident, therefore each brain has its own specific "card" intelligence. To know a specific intelligence map of a trainee is to maximally adapt learning to his personal abilities.
Only two types (types) of intelligence are very highly valued in the traditional system of learning. The first of these, Gardner calls linguistic intelligence, meaning our ability to read, write and communicate with the help of oral language. The second type is logical or mathematical intelligence, i.e. our ability to think logically and conduct calculations.
Traditionally, most so-called mental capacity tests, like most education systems, are focused on developing and determining the level of development of these two types of intelligence, which, in Gardner's opinion, greatly impoverishes and narrows our potential in education and upbringing. And for our national school the ability to read, write, solve mathematical problems were and remain among the main components of the product of the teaching.
Other types of intelligence that are present in one way or another in the brain of each person are of little demand or not at all. In addition to the two main varieties of intelligence - linguistic and mathematical - Gardner singles out six more individual types of intelligence. To make it easier for us to understand their essence, the author of this tutorial "put on" on each of them a mask of a well-known character, in which this type of intelligence manifests itself to the maximum extent.
1. A typical representative of linguistic (linguistic) intelligence - A. Pushkin. This type of addiction is born in the left hemisphere of the brain, in the so-called Broca area. All people have a language intellect. However, it is most developed among actors, teachers, radio and television broadcasters, lawyers.
2. An example of the mind with logic-mathematical intelligence - A. Einstein. The possessor of such intelligence possesses the ability to quickly and correctly solve problems. People with a logical-mathematical way of thinking are able to put forward hypotheses, to test them, to establish patterns. This type of intelligence has a non-verbal nature. In the solution of logical and mathematical problems, brain regions located in the temporal region are involved. Mathematical thinking has a genetic nature, each of us possesses it to such a degree as to superficially comprehend mathematics. However, not everyone will be able to achieve perfection in this area.
3. WA Mozart - a representative of the so-called musical intelligence. The extraordinary musical abilities of the boy showed up very early, at the age of three, even before he picked up a musical instrument. This confirms the naturous character of this type of intelligence. Musical talents live in the right hemisphere. Musical intelligence is very valuable, and not only because it makes it easier for people to listen and understand the world. Studies conducted in Sweden confirmed that children who attended additional music lessons improved their results in language learning and reading.
4. Spatial Intelligence is needed for artists, sculptors, architects, important for engineers, surgeons. Sailors of the archipelago of the Carolina Islands swim in the sea without navigational instruments. Orientations for them are the stars, the color of water, the nature of the waves. In their minds, they hold a spatial map of the sea. Spatial information is accumulated and analyzed in the right hemisphere of the brain. Thanks to it, we are able to find the way home, read maps, imagine objects in space, on the other hand or from a different angle.
5. Natural Intelligence - is the ability to co-exist with plants and animals. A man with exceptional natural abilities was Charles Darwin, although in his case "natural talents" stepped in pairs with logical-mathematical and linguistic intelligence. Gardeners, veterinarians, foresters, trainers are people whose professional successes depend on the level of development of natural intelligence.
6. Kinesthetic intelligence (physical, motor) is the ability to use your body, the ability to control movements, manipulate objects and create balance between your mind and body. Motor intelligence does not apply only to sporting achievements. A high rate of motor inclinations should have a carver, tailor, surgeon, pilot, masseur, actor. The site that controls the movement of the body is located in both hemispheres of the brain, with each half controlling the opposite part of the body: the left one - the right side, and the right one - the left one. It is believed that kinesthetic intelligence is universal and has a genetic origin.
7. Interpersonal intelligence, which is also called public, enables a person to understand other people. Let's agree that somebody knows how to do it better, and some people do not understand others at all. Such intellect is possessed by outstanding religious and political figures, teachers, psychologists, therapists, sellers. This type of intelligence helps to cooperate, establish contacts, create prerequisites for leadership and solidarity.
8. Intrapersonal intelligence is also called personal. This knowledge of yourself, your knowledge and emotions, opportunities, access to your own feelings, the ability to analyze your spiritual impulses. People with this intelligence have the right idea about themselves. Personal intellect, like the public one, is located in the frontal parts of the brain.
The so-called emotional intelligence is singled out. Most often it is understood as a combination of two types: interpersonal and intrapersonal (social and personal). The advantages and disadvantages of this type of intelligence have been discussed since the American psychologist D. Goleman published the book "Emotional Intelligence" (1988), in which it is proved that "emotionally intelligent" people achieve greater success in their personal and professional lives than people who are gifted with a high IQ. Goleman writes: "At best, about 20% of the factors that determine success in life determine the intelligence ratio, and the remaining 80% are associated with quite different things - what is called the emotional mind."
The term emotional mind became fashionable. Many books and manuals have been written on this subject, many courses have been conducted. Some experts see in the emotional intelligence the main reserves of improving the quality of school education.
Professor J. Perth became famous in the early 1970s. his study of "emotion molecules" (opiate receptors in the brain). She described these receptors as "sensitive molecules", which are the "molecular basis of emotions". The habitat of these molecules is not limited only to the brain region. They "run every organ and system of our body". For pedagogy this is a cardinal conclusion, from which it follows that information is preserved in all parts of our body. Whichever way the new information gets to us - in the form of image, sound, taste or smell - its traces persist not only in the brain, but also in other parts of the body. In this sense, our body is the "subconscious mind". The mind and body work as a unit, selecting, preserving, studying and restoring information in memory.
Consciousness, intelligence, memory - tenants of one apartment. Live closely, act together, for all respond together. If we divorce them in different quarters, then this is only in theory.
In light of the energy-information theory, memory is the excited state of individual groups of neurons, the program that was unblocked at the moment. If this provision is developed and we can understand its mechanism, then the development of memory, if someone needs it, will have to be built in a different way.
Memory connects us with the past, allows us to navigate in the present, look to the future. Today, we can confidently answer many questions related to memory.
1. Where is our memory located? In ancient times, it was suggested that the processes of remembering are carried out in the liver. Then people came to the conclusion that memorable information settles in the bones of the skull. Ancient Greek philosopher Socrates believed that in the head there is a wax tablet on which all the necessary information is recorded. Today it is known that the cortex is responsible for short-term memory, and for the long-term memory - the hippocampus.
2. Is our memory permanent? Scientists come to the conclusion that neurons, whose number decreases with age, can worsen the quality of our brain and nervous system. So memory impairment is predetermined? Not certainly in that way. Given the numerous connections that exist in the brain, the loss of neurons with age can be compared to the loss of some hair after washing the head. The important thing is how the remaining neurons will work.
3. When does memory appear? At the beginning of the XIX century. it was believed that a person comes into the world with a brain that is clean, like a sheet of paper. Modern studies show that the embryo is formed already 20 weeks after conception. The memory of a four-year-old child is the same as that of an adult. The only difference is that it is not yet developed.
4. At whom memory is better? According to recent studies, the best memory parameters in 19-year-old people. The trade is influenced by the profession: it is best preserved by artists, thanks to constant training - memorizing texts, scientists who work hard on all parts of the brain, and beekeepers, if they use beekeeping products that are rich in microelements that help improve memory.>
5. Does memory have genetic roots? The "deja vu" phenomenon when we remember something from "not ours" past life, or get into a situation where the thought arises: "it was already", - is associated with the so-called genetic memory. Scientists conducted an experiment in rats. The test animals were frightened with bright light. The offspring of these rats were not subjected to similar experiments, but preserved the fear of bright light
6. How to save memory? It is believed that by observing the diet, we cleanse the body, improve its capabilities. Scientists have found that monotonous, meager food does not contribute to the rapid work of memory. Studies show that alcohol consumption leads to memory impairment, especially to the face. American scientists in experiments on mice have proved that the faster the animals forget the old and unnecessary information, the better they perceive the new one. People-Larks The memory efficiency is maximal from 8 to 12 o'clock in the morning, and at "owls" - from 8 to 12 pm.
Psychologists distinguish three types (types) of memory. Each observation, every information perceived by sensations - sight, hearing, smell or touch - penetrates the brain, where it is stored in the form of sensory memory. Visual observations, for example, settle in the back of the cerebral cortex. Sensual memory can cover an unlimited amount of information, but, unfortunately, it is short.
The facts that are important, necessary or interesting for us are included in short-term memory, which is sometimes referred to as a "leaky bucket", because the information is here for about a minute. In short-term memory, only seven plus or minus two messages can be contained simultaneously. In this regard, even in higher education, one should not immediately give a lot of information for memorization. When an English teacher offers a whole series of words at once, students must forget the first to remember the eighth. It is necessary to present the knowledge in portions in order to enable them to be registered in memory.
Long-term memory is quite capacious, but if it is overloaded with information that, moreover, is poorly systematized, then we will always have problems with remembering facts and events. Teachers are aware of the shortcomings of this type of memory, in particular, students do not always carefully memorize the material. One of the types of technology that should be used more widely in universities is that information that must be well remembered, written down in different parts of the brain. This is the keyword method, which is used to find information in the computer. The word "information", for example, can be placed in our memory in various programs and coded according to many signs - type, importance, frequency of treatment, etc.
Alas, memory deteriorates over the years, but this process can be slowed down. Especially for you, dear students, secret tips.
1. Think about the good. The first enemy of memory is a bad mood and depression. It is melancholy, apathy, black thoughts make us forgetful and distracted. But a smile and positive emotions, on the contrary, make the memory work better. So, go back to pleasant memories more often.
2. Listen to music. Sound vibrations cause alpha and beta brain waves that stimulate intellectual activity. Thanks to them we learn fast and remember. From all directions of music, give preference to the classics.
3. Play chess. This ancient game develops creative thinking. Throughout the game you are focused on one goal - victory, which means that the brain is looking for all sorts of ways to it.
4. Eat marine fish. A third of the brain structure consists of fatty unsaturated acids. With their lack, a person experiences problems with memory, imagination, and attention. To improve the mental processes, it is useful to eat fatty fish (mackerel, herring, tuna), rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids omega-3.
5. Be active and active. In order not to suffer from forgetfulness, it's enough to dedicate exercises three times a week for a week. Physical activity increases the blood circulation of the brain, which improves memory.
6. Boil potatoes in a uniform. Eating foods rich in carbohydrates, such as potatoes, strengthens memory. Under the skin of the potato, stocks of fat-soluble vitamin K.
7. Breathe the flavors of plants. Essential oils of rosemary and sage relieve stress, do head clear and improve memory. The smell of lemon and mint helps to cheer up and restore the acuity of perception. Buy an aroma lamp and occasionally spend at the work desk aromatherapy sessions.
8. Eat vegetables and fruits. The antioxidants contained in them also strengthen memory and slow the aging process of the brain. Feed yourself with vitamin salad.
9. Drink more water. It is vital for maintaining the health and alertness of the mind. If the body is dehydrated, the cells can not function properly, which makes you inattentive and distracted. So drink at least 1.5 liters of fluid per day.
10. Chew the leaves of the ginkgo-bilob. The leaves of this tree have long been used in Chinese medicine. The extract of them has a stimulating and adaptogenic effect: the work of the brain, the state of the vessels, improves. In addition, the ginkgohilob supplement removes stress, since it contains antioxidants that can reduce the level of radicals.
11. Eat more, but less. Do not make too many breaks between meals, as starvation can contribute to lethargy, loss of attention and forgetfulness. It is best to eat small portions five to six times a day: this will speed up the metabolism and give regular replenishment to the brain.
12. Watch for hemoglobin. Iron helps to transfer oxygen to the brain. When its level falls, tissues lack oxygen, which leads to a weakening of memory and fatigue. Eat lean red meat, buckwheat, oatmeal, apples - this will replenish the body with iron. Once a year, give a general blood test (the norm of hemoglobin is 110-136 g/l)!
13. Play lotto. According to numerous studies, playing lotto retains the liveliness of the mind for a long time. You quickly cross out the numbers, which is an excellent training for the eyes and a test for quick reaction. Another plus is adrenaline rush.
14. Take adaptogens. For example, the golden root speeds up mental processes and improves memory. It is enough to take it three times a day for 10 days. Ginseng, radiola rose, aralia are similar to the stimulating effect.
15. Enter the soy. Medical tests have shown that people who are on a diet rich in soy products have excellent memory. Try to enter into your menu soy meat, bean curd and soy milk (two or three times a week).
16. Do not forget about vitamins. They are necessary for successful work of the brain and metabolism. Vitamin C, for example, is needed to create a neurotransmitter acetylcholine, which allows you to keep the memory sharp. Vitamin E and vitamin A provide energy to brain cells and prevent Alzheimer's disease.
17. Eat foods with vitamin B. Disadvantages of B vitamins (B1, B2, B6 and B12 and folic acid) causes energy starvation of the brain, which leads to memory impairment, delayed reaction, rapid fatigue, inability to concentrate. The main sources of vitamin B are rye bread (Borodinsky), wheat germ, beef liver, milk, yogurt, bananas.
18. Do not get carried away losing weight. A too severe low-calorie diet can lead to the loss of not only weight, but also memory. Scientists have found that the information in this case is processed more slowly, and the reaction time is reduced. It is much more productive to switch to a rational diet.
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