10.4. Consciousness and activity
This principle is based on the laws established by science: the true essence of human education is deeply and independently meaningful knowledge, acquired through intense tension of one's own mental activity; the conscious assimilation of knowledge and norms of behavior depends on a number of conditions and factors: the motivation for the activity, the level and nature of the cognitive activity of students, the organization of the educational process and the management of cognitive activity of students, the methods and means of instruction used by the teacher, etc .; own cognitive activity of the schoolboy is an important factor of learning and upbringing, has a decisive influence on the pace, depth and strength of mastering the teaching material.
Practical realization of the principle of consciousness and activity of education is carried out by observing the rules of teaching.
1. A clear understanding of the goals and objectives of the work ahead is a prerequisite for conscious learning and parenting: show them to the students, explain the importance and significance, open the perspectives.
2. Train and educate so that the student understands what, why and how to do, and never mechanically performed the required actions, preliminarily and deeply, without realizing them.
3. Use all kinds and forms of cognitive activity, combine analysis with synthesis, induction with deduction, comparison with opposition. Use the analogy more often. The younger the schoolchildren are, the more often you start with induction.
4. Ensure students understand the meaning of each word, sentence, concept: reveal them, relying on knowledge and experience, use imaginative comparisons. Do not enter concepts that you do not expect to disclose.
5. Use the power of mutual learning and mutual education. Provide proper conditions for the development of collective forms of finding the right answer. What a friend says or does is often perceived better and easier by students than the explanation of the teacher, and therefore do not explain what your best students can explain and show to your comrades.
6. On the upbringing of activity, do not spare time or effort. Remember that today's active student is tomorrow's active member of society.
7. Give your students new incentives for teaching and upbringing - those that lie in the process itself and its results. Make you love the process of forming yourself - this is one of the main pleasures in life.
8. What the students do not know, logically link with the known: where there is no logical connection between learned and assimilated knowledge, forms of behavior, there is no conscious education and upbringing.
9. Do not forget that the main thing is not the subject you are training, but the personality that you are forming. Teach and nurture so that the student is not an "add-on" to the subject, but, on the contrary, the subject of his active development. Remember that it's not the subject that shapes the personality, but the teacher's activity related to the study of the subject.
10. Put students in situations that require them to discover and explain the discrepancies between observed facts and regulatory requirements.
11. Training and education will be more successful if each rule is accompanied by an optimal number of examples, so that it becomes clear how diverse its application is.
12. Teacher has little knowledge of his subject. He must know and respect children's ignorance, understand the real cause and eliminate it without trying to resort to force.
13. Learn to find and distinguish between the main and secondary in the studied, highlight the main thing, seek first of all understanding and mastering the main thing. Enter the optimal number of examples, but so that they do not overshadow the essence of the main.
14. Set a difficult goal, emphasize its exceptional difficulty and cause confidence that it will certainly be achieved. The goal may be uninteresting, but the belief in the possibility of overcoming difficulties is very capable of mobilizing the student.
15. Nothing should be taught, relying on one authority: but everything must be taught with the help of evidence based on feelings and reason.
16. Help students learn the most productive methods of educational and cognitive activity, teach them to learn.
17. That each student could answer freely at the board, did not detain the class and did not knock down the pace of the lesson, there must be a support before him (diagram, table, abstract, algorithm). Confidence, good health and mood contribute to improving the effectiveness of the teaching and upbringing process.
18. Use the simplest possible means of training and education. Do not get carried away with computer and multimedia. Virtual reality never coincides with reality. Take the children out of virtual deception, which is created by computer networks.
19. Control the factors distracting the attention of the students from the object of study, both internal (absent-mindedness of thought, engaging in extraneous matters at the lesson, etc.), and external (delays, violations of discipline, etc.), eliminate unfavorably acting reasons from the educational- educational process.
20. As often as possible, use the question "why" to teach reasoning: an understanding of cause-effect relationships is an indispensable condition for conscious and developing learning.
21. The intellectual background of the class is a strong stimulator of the cognitive activity of each student. Increase it with all available forms and means.
22. The same goes for the emotional background. Experiencing a pupil of his wrong behavior should not leave indifferent pupils or teachers.
23. Success will come where all that is taught is so substantiated by evidence and arguments that there is no place left for doubt or oblivion.
24. Remember, what really knows is not the one who retells, but the one who in practice applies.
25. Recognition of the diversity of human nature, character, abilities, mental differences, personal interests and life plans is the basis for choosing the right strategy for learning, respect for the individual and the way to avoid many mistakes.
26. Continually study and use the individual interests of your students, develop and guide them in such a way that they are consistent with personal and social needs.
27. Interest in teaching is only there where there is inspiration born of success. Give the student confidence that he will necessarily succeed, teach him how to do the work correctly, teach him how to rationally learn, make sure he does not keep up.
28. Wider use practical situations in teaching, demand from students an independent vision, understanding and understanding of the differences between the facts observed in life and their scientific explanation.
29. Strive to perform the given work at all costs, and if it is not performed qualitatively or at the set time - be careful not to accuse only the student.
30. Teach so that knowledge has acquired the power of persuasion and guidance to action.
31. Instruct students to think and act independently. Gradually move away from mechanical retelling, verbatim reproduction.
32. Creative thinking develop a comprehensive analysis of problems, cognitive tasks solve in several logically different ways, more often practice creative tasks.
33. The skill to ask questions and listen to answers is one of the important conditions for stimulating and maintaining activity. What question is the answer, as the teacher listens to the student - so the student listens to the teacher.
34. Increase the motivation of students through personal relationships, punishments and rewards.
Is it necessary to demand from children an indispensable awareness of the norms of behavior?
Since the Soviet era, it was believed that in the first stage of education and upbringing one should achieve an understanding by the pupil of what is required of him. The child must certainly understand - why you need to wash, brush your teeth, say hello to your neighbors, tell the truth. Everything needs to be explained so that he understands and consciously begins to perform. I think all this is stupid. Due to its age and development, a child can not understand the essence of most moral requirements and no adult can intelligibly explain to him why it is necessary, for example, the daily routine, why it is necessary to clean the room.
Practical pedagogy of our grandmothers did not deal with such nonsense. The child was presented with requirements. To the question - why and why one answer followed: if you grow up, you will know. You will understand, you will understand. This eliminated unnecessary obstacles. The requirement had to be fulfilled. Father's strap or willow rod quickly removed all misunderstanding. The bed was cleaned, the room sparkled clean, the clothes were neat. How did the grown up children of their parents thanked them for being accustomed to all of them.
What do you think about this? How are you going to educate your children?
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