Continuity of education of children of preschool and primary school age
Basic concepts of continuityOntogenesis is the individual development of the organism, the totality of the successive morphological, physiological and biochemical transformations undergone by the organism, from its inception to the end of life. In the process of human activity and communication there is a formation of the psyche, consciousness, personality in ontogeny as social processes that are carried out under conditions of active, purposeful influence on the part of society.
Chronological age limits . Relatively different in psychological and pedagogical science there are several dissenting opinions. In the literature, you can find the following boundaries: from 6-7 to 11 years (LS Vygotsky), from 7 to 12 years (AA Lyublinskaya), from 7-8 to 10-11 years (LI Bozhovich ), from 7 to 11 years (DB El'konin). VI Slobodchikov shifted the border of this age to 6.5 years. In modern documents (for example, the Law on Education), the junior school age is determined by the boundaries from 6.5 to 10 years. It should be understood that age changes are not only an objective process, but also a subjective process. unique for each child, so there are always children who are ahead of their "passports" peers or actually lag behind them in terms of intellectual, physical, emotional, volitional, moral development. So, the difference in the development of children can be due to:
• gender differences (between boys and girls):
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• the conditions of the social environment;
• the way the training is organized;
• Psychophysiology of children, etc.
Knowledge of the patterns of transition from one period to another will help to identify laws and conditions for building a system of education and training for children of these ages.
The problem of continuity of the stages of raising children is especially acute at two key points - at the time of enrollment of children in school and at the time of transition of primary school students to primary school.
Each psychological age is expedient to consider, adhering to the following scheme (DB El'konin):
• The social situation of development;
• the leading type of activity that realizes social relations;
• the psychological neoplasms arising during this period;
• the emotional-volitional sphere of the child;
• Features of his self-esteem.
Features of primary school age. Junior school age is one of the periods of childhood, the very name of which indicates that it is associated with the beginning of schooling.
A child of preschool age is free from compulsory productive social activities, so the leading activity for him is the gaming one. The game enables children in an imaginary situation to reproduce those forms of behavior and activities that are not yet available to him in reality; losing the separate plots, the preschooler knows these forms of behavior and takes possession of them. In addition, the game for the preschooler is a way to understand the surrounding world, to penetrate into the system of relationships and interests of adults. An important attribute of the game is the game rules that the child is accustomed to understand, observe. Thus, the game for the preschooler is also a mechanism through which the requirements of the adult world are broadcast. Through the game, a preschool child enters the sphere of moral norms and learns what is good and what is bad. Social control comes into play in the game, as the participants of the game must comply with the rules; it is important that game rules are often invented by children and they themselves strictly monitor their observance.
Admission to school marks a turning point in the social situation of child development. Becoming a schoolboy, the child gets new rights and responsibilities and for the first time begins to engage in socially significant activities, on the level of performance of which depends his place among others and his relationship with them.
Thus, according to LI Bozhovich, already for six-year-old children the consciousness of self becomes accessible not only as a subject of action (which was characteristic of the previous period of development), but also as a subject in the system of human relations. The younger schoolboy begins to realize himself as a member of the society. The space of life of a junior schoolchildren with admission to school expands and becomes more complicated. However, the child faces many difficulties. The fact is that, aspiring to school, the child is guided by the external attributes of school life (portfolio, school supplies, a new role of the student), poorly representing those difficulties that he will have to face.
With the qualitatively new nature of communication and the expansion of social ties among children of primary school age, their increased sensitivity to external influences is associated. If in the preschool childhood the main was communication with parents or close relatives, especially for those who did not attend pre-school establishments, now the communication in the structure of the teacher-student becomes qualitatively new for them. For junior students the position of the student is a new social role. And in the image of the teacher there is a new authority. Confidence and openness of children to teachers and parents create favorable opportunities for the formation of socially valuable ideas and the foundation of a positive ethical basis of behavior in the minds of children.
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Interpersonal relations between children are changing, and business contacts are added to game contacts. The child has new social roles - student & quot ;, schoolboy & quot ;, classmate & quot ;, member of the team or creative group and others
L. S. Vygotsky introduced the concept of the "strong crisis" of 7 years. " It is based on changes in the sense of social competence of the child. The crisis manifests itself, first of all, in the change in the character of the system of relations from the preschool child to the younger student. Thus, the attitude toward objective activity becomes more oriented toward socially significant actions and the rules for their implementation. The child can already concentrate on a certain activity, he has delayed goals. In relation to other people, the child is very sensitive, and in comparison with the preschool child, the younger schoolchildren significantly expand the circle of people whose assessments become important for the child. Gradually, the attitude towards oneself is transformed. There is a sense of self-esteem, an experience of one's own importance for others, a desire to become an equal partner. The modifying system of relations determines the following manifestations in the child's behavior:
• instability of will, mood;
• Loss of immediacy in behavior, the appearance of "oddities" - fidgeting, mannerism, tension,
• Reduced situationality of reactions, behavior becomes more arbitrary;
• the requirement of respect for yourself, and in the absence of the latter - distancing;
• orientation to external authorities - people outside the family, adults, senior students.
At the beginning of the school age, there are three lines of development, highlighted by DB Elkonin:
• line of formation of arbitrary behavior;
• the line of mastering the means and standards of cognitive activity;
• The line of transition from egocentrism to decentration.
D. B. Elkonin attached great importance to the aspect of mastering and fulfilling the preschool child's rule, believing that the implementation of the rule is a system of social relations between the child and the adult, and turning the rule into an internal instance of behavior is a sign of readiness for schooling.
In the younger school age, changes occur in the emotional-volitional sphere of the child. The maximum emotional reactions of the child are accounted for by situations connected with educational activity and its new social roles. In this case, the child, firstly, does not always accurately perceive and understand the feelings, and secondly, he is characterized by imitation of adults. Therefore, the emotions of a child of this age are not always accurate. The age norm of a happy child of this age is a cheerful, joyful mood; hyperactivity or pessimism is evidence of ill-being in the child's environment. There is a regular dynamics of the emotional sphere of the younger schoolchildren: from impulsive reactions, involuntary manifestations of emotions in a preschool child to restraint in expressing emotions and controlling them by the end of junior school age. In the third or fourth grade, impulsive motor reactions begin to be replaced by speech ones.
Leading activity changes: if in preschool childhood she was a game, now the leading activity is learning activity. It is during the learning activity that the younger schoolchild differentiates other, new activities; private psychic processes (for example, thinking) are formed or reconstructed; from the teaching, the main psychological changes of the personality observed in the given period of development depend in the closest possible way. In addition, teaching is the first kind of social activity that a student faces. Therefore, activity in learning is both a condition, a result, and a means of forming the personality of a junior schoolchild.
All requirements related to the schoolchild's teaching and position are very effective and cause the children of this age to strive to meet them.
In the acquisition of new knowledge and skills, junior schoolchildren are guided by the motive of interest, curiosity, the desire to gain approval from the teacher, classmates, parents. At the same time, the strong-willed sphere is not developed enough for them. This manifests itself in the scattered attention, the unformed desire to overcome difficulties in work, to bring the business to the end. While relying on the emotionally positive perception of activity characteristic of the younger school age, one can cultivate a relation to one's work, to nature, to others, characterized by benevolence, unselfishness, caring, the desire to work together and other important skills.
Let's dwell on the peculiarities of moral judgments of preschool children and younger schoolchildren.
The well-known scientist L. Kolberg distinguished the stages and levels of the moral development of children. He assumed that the age of 4 to 10 years corresponds to a pre-moral (home-grown) level of development. At this level, actions are determined by external circumstances, the motives and point of view of other people are not taken into account.
He identified two stages.
Stage 1. Orientation to punishment.
At this stage, a moral judgment is made depending on what kind of reward or punishment entails the act.
A child follows established rules of conduct only in order to avoid punishment.
Stage 2. Targeting incentives.
At this stage, judgment about an act, one's own or another, is made in accordance with the benefit that can be extracted from the action.
The child demonstrates conformal behavior aimed at getting encouragement. He expects that for positive actions he will receive approval and a good attitude towards himself.
According to L. Kolberg, gradually, with adulthood and upbringing, from the age of 10 the pre-moral level of development is replaced by a conventional (compromising) level, which, in turn (about 13 years), goes post-institutional. For this level of moral development, orientation toward a social contract, universal principles and moral norms are characteristic.
Famous psychologist J. Piaget experimentally studied the moral judgments of children of senior preschool age. His method is that he told the children stories, the heroes of which - the children - did different things, and asked the listeners to discuss them. Here are two stories of a psychologist.
1. Helping to lay the table, little Jean accidentally breaks a tray with cups. Little Henry, despite the prohibition of adults, climbs into the cupboard for jam, accidentally grabs the cup and smashes it. Who should be more punished: Jean, who broke ten cups, or Henry, who broke only one?
The answer of the children: Jean, who broke 10 cups, is more to blame.
2. The boy is breaking the glass in the shop. The child managed to escape, but when he crossed the bridge of the stream, the board broke and he fell into the water. Why did misfortune happen?
The answer of the children: The misfortune happened precisely because the boy committed a misdemeanor. If the boy did not break the glass, the board would not crack.
The age limits of moral development can be determined on the basis of an analysis of the moral judgments of the child according to the following indicators:
a) the presence of intention ("Break 10 cups by chance worse than one on purpose");
b) Relativity ("Any action or act is evaluated unambiguously - either as bad or as good");
c) unquestionable authority ("The Adult Is Always Right");
d) independence of consequences ("The severity of misdemeanor is assessed by the severity of the punishment, the one who is punished is more guilty").
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