Ratio of social development, social learning and social education
Basic concepts : social development, social activity of the individual, social growths, social education, social education.
In understanding the essence of social development of the personality, the question of the correlation of social instruction and social education in it is very important. It is in the process of social interaction, in the process of mastering the culture accumulated by mankind, that the most important qualities of a person are formed-his consciousness and self-awareness, professional and personal characteristics.
Social Development and Social Learning
The problem of correlation of social development and social learning is not only methodologically, but also practically meaningful. From its solution depends the definition of the content of education, the choice of forms and methods of teaching.
Recall that social education should be understood not only the process of "transfers" ready knowledge from the social environment to the student, and a broad interaction between the learner and the learner, the method of implementing the pedagogical process for the purpose of developing the personality through the society, the organization of mastering the students of scientific knowledge and ways of activities in it. It is a process of stimulating and controlling the student's external and internal activity, as a result of which the development of human, social experience takes place.
Under development, as applied to learning, two different, albeit closely interrelated, phenomena are understood: the biological, organic maturation of the brain, its anatomical and biological structures and the mental (in particular, mental) development as a certain dynamics of its levels, as a kind of mental maturation.
The peculiarity of social development is its close connection with the social environment, socialization in this environment and the acquisition of those social qualities that are significant for a full-fledged existence in it. The goals of social development are achieved through social education, the assimilation of social experience, the acquisition of knowledge relevant to socialization about the society, the skills and abilities of interaction with its potential, skills and abilities to solve problems of socialization of the individual.
In psycho-pedagogical science, at least three points of view have formed on the ratio of learning and development.
The first, most common, is that learning and development are viewed as two independent processes. In this case, the training is built-in over maturation of the brain. Thus, learning is understood as a purely external use of opportunities that arise in the development process. V. Stern wrote that training follows development and adapts to it. And since this is so, you do not have to interfere with the process of mental maturation, do not interfere with it, but patiently and passively wait until the opportunities for training are ripe.
Scientists who adhere to the second point of view, merge learning and development, identify the one and the other processes (James Thorndike).
The third group of theories unites the first two points of view and supplements them with a new position: training can go not only after development, not only a foot in step with it, but also ahead of development, promoting it is further and causing a new formation in it. This significant new idea was put forward by Vygotsky. He substantiated the thesis about the leading role of teaching in the development of personality. In connection with this, Vygotsky singled out two levels of the child's mental development: the first level of actual development is the available level of the student's preparedness, which is characterized by what tasks he can perform quite independently; The second, higher level, which he called the zone of proximal development, means that the child can not perform on his own, but with what he cope with a little help. What the child does today with the help of an adult, Vygotsky noted, tomorrow he will do it himself; what was included in the zone of the nearest development, in the process of training passes to the level of actual development.
Modern social pedagogy stands on the point of view of the dialectical relationship between social learning and social development of the individual: beyond education, there can not be a full-fledged development of the individual. Training stimulates, leads to development, at the same time relies on it, but does not build itself up purely mechanically.
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