Correlation of subjective and objective reality - Psychology and pedagogy

The ratio of subjective and objective reality

The philosophical concept of being covers the widest possible reality. These are material things and all processes (physical, chemical, geological, biological, social). But this notion includes subjective reality. "The fruits of the wildest fantasy, fairy tales, myths, even the delirium of a sick imagination - all this also exists as a kind of spiritual reality, as part of being". Psychology deals with objective processes of life - human behavior, his actions, his activities, his being as a whole. However, the actual subject of psychology is subjective reality. Subjective belongs to man as a subject. The fact is that all the mental objectively exists only as a subjective, that is, as inherent in the individual. There are no nameless, anonymous feelings, feelings, experiences. Subjective is all the mental activity, including the one in the course of which a person reveals an objective reality, expressed in objective truth.

Modern psychology refers to a very significant object. We are talking about such important issues as the nature of reality, the cosmic creative principle and our participation in it, the driving forces of creation, taboos against the knowledge of our true identity, and the problem of good and evil.

Psychology (from Greek psyche - the soul and logos - teaching, word) - the science of the laws of development and functioning of the psyche as a special form of life activity. Being a specific way of reflecting reality, psychology is a doctrine of the soul and the soul. The sources of psychology can serve as an ancient shamanic practice, rich psychological culture of the East, mythology of different countries. However, it is customary to begin the history of psychology as a science with Aristotle, who viewed the soul as "entelechy", i.e. as an animated basis (principle) of a body with three basic abilities - nutrition, sensation and thinking. In ancient philosophy, various teachings about the soul have generalized and systematized the various knowledge accumulated by mankind about mental processes and personality properties for which the soul was an explanatory notion.

Thanks to the progress of the natural sciences in the 16th century, Aristotle's psychology, which prevailed throughout the Middle Ages, was replaced by a new psychology based on the postulate "causality naturally determines the life of the soul." T. Hobbes and B. Spinoza also defended this mechanistic interpretation of psychic life. In English associative psychology (D. Gartley, D. Hume in the 18th century, and later J. Mill, J. St. Mill, A. Ben, H. Spencer, etc.), the idea was realized to present mental life as a natural and as well as the mechanical result of motivations to a submission that obeys associative laws. I. Herbart tried to create a psychology that would be analogous to the natural sciences, that is, in other words, to give it a mathematical structure wherever possible.

For centuries, psychology has developed in the bosom of philosophy. However, at the end of the XIX century. it became an independent discipline. This was facilitated by the program in the study of the psychology of feelings (I. Muller, E. G. Weber, G. L. F. Helmholtz, as well as the rationale for psychophysics as an accurate theory of the relationship between body and soul (GT Fechner). also achievements in the field of studying the anatomy of the brain and the development of physiology in general, the application to the psychology of the theory of development (Charles Darwin, G. Spencer) .The formation of psychology as an independent science was influenced by its association with sociology, the substantiation of scientific zoopsychology, child psychology and psychology on birth, the creation of experimental psychology.In the nineteenth century, psychology became an independent and very respectable scientific theory.

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