Culturological personality-oriented education., School...

Culturological personality-oriented education.

The culturological personality-oriented approach makes an acceptance on the relation to the child as a subject of life, capable of self-change and self-development. The teacher in this case is seen as an intermediary between the child and culture, capable of introducing him into the world of culture and assisting in individual self-determination in the world of cultural values.

Education is understood as a cultural process, the driving forces of which are the search for personal meanings, dialogue and cooperation of its participants in achieving the goals of cultural self-development. The school in this case is a holistic cultural and educational space where children and adults live together and recreate.

In relation to the student, personality-oriented education performs the following functions: helps to acquire values ​​and meaning of life, develops it as a person of culture and an integral personality.

According to E. V. Bondarevskaya, it is possible to distinguish such basic components in the culturological personality-oriented education: the axiological component presupposes the introduction of students into the world of values, personal meanings; the cognitive component provides knowledge about a person, culture, history, nature; activity-creative component contributes to the development of creative abilities necessary for self-development; the personality component provides an opportunity for self-knowledge, development of reflection, ways of self-regulation.

School of Dialogue of Cultures of VS Bibler.

In a number of philosophical and pedagogical works it is possible to trace the origin of the philosophical principle of the dialogue of cultures as the most progressive type of interrelations between cultures in a modern multicultural world. In his work PF Kapterev proposes to include in the content of national education the language, religion and way of life, which can be learned by the students on the basis of the relationship between national and universal. Mastering one's native language involves familiarizing oneself with national spiritual values, which, in turn, are part of universal knowledge, forming scientific views of the surrounding world. The development of children's sense of belonging to universal human knowledge and values ​​is opposed to the ethnocentric allocation of national exclusivity.

PF Kapterev also argues that it is necessary to consider the culture of more than one specific people to educate personalities of students with universal human thinking, but to turn to the culture of many peoples to compare their values ​​and norms. By this comparison, learners will learn to borrow and replenish their national ideals with other cultures, seeking to integrate into universal values. Thus, pedagogical activity is initially carried out on the basis of the national ideal, then it is transformed into activities to achieve the universal ideal.

The idea of ​​the dialogue of cultures permeates all literary criticism of M. M. Bakhtin, the analysis of which was carried out by the United States philosopher VS Bibler. For MM Bakhtin and VS Bibler, culture is the concentration of all other (social, spiritual, emotional, moral, aesthetic) meanings of human existence. Dialogue for M. Bakhtin is the root and foundation of all other definitions of human existence, the general principle of understanding. Self-determination in culture can really be realized only in the process of special relations between the past, the present and the future of human existence and the existence of the epochs of human history. In this sense, the XX century. can be called a period of cultural intercourse of the XIX-XXI centuries, as it, on the one hand, is the link between the past and the future, and on the other - acquires meaning through understanding and comparison of the past with the future.

An educational process built on ideas

B. S. Bibler, is called the School of Dialogue of Cultures, in which one of the main ways of organizing educational activity is the educational dialogue. Particularly great is his role in the initial stages of training. The educational dialogue includes the child's word, his statement of his thought, his point of view. Children's questions, conjectures and hypotheses, conjectures and delusions, self-statement of problems are drawn into a dialogue lesson. Pupil

does not reproduce the concepts given to him, and if he reproduces, then he makes them the subject of his consideration, consent or disagreement, objection-acceptance. There is the possibility of disagreement, contradiction. The student thus does not assimilate the finished subject, but not only expresses his opinion, but, in the position of clashing opinions, hypotheses, concepts, is included in the dialogue and makes it the subject of his inner speech.

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