Cycles of educational trajectories, degrees and levels of the European Higher Education Area
One of the most important tasks of the EHEA creation is the formation of a higher education system based on several consecutive, completed cycles.
Two years after the signing of the Bologna Declaration, general characteristics for the European bachelor's degrees were awarded after the completion of the first cycle [26. P. 310]:
1. The level of a bachelor's degree is a higher education qualification, the volume of which is from 180 to 240 ECTS credits (see paragraph 1.5). To obtain this degree, it usually takes three to four years of full-time education. An integral part of any bachelor's degree is the formation of the "ability to learn" (learning to learn skills).
2. Bachelor's degrees can be obtained either in traditional universities or in professionally oriented higher educational institutions. Programs for the degree can have different directions and different profiles aimed at meeting the diversity of academic needs of students, as well as the needs of the labor market.
3. To improve transparency, it is necessary that the specific direction, profile and results of the training of this qualification be included in the qualification name and explained in the Diploma Supplement that is issued to the student.
The conference in Helsinki in March 2003, dedicated to master's degrees, showed the presence of very different points of view on master's programs. However, it was possible to identify a number of general characteristics of the master's degree:
1. Master degree programs usually require 90-120 ECTS credits; The minimum requirement for a master's level is 60 ECTS credits. Since the duration of bachelor's programs is different, it is necessary to provide similar flexibility at the master's level.
2. The master's and bachelor's degrees should be characterized by different expected results. For admission to the master's program, a bachelor's degree is usually required.
3. Programs for a master's degree can have different directions and different profiles to satisfy the diversity of academic needs of students, as well as the needs of the labor market. Master's degrees can be obtained at universities, and in some countries - in other higher education institutions.
In a tertiary higher education system organized on the principle of cycles, each cycle corresponds to a separate set of learning outcomes, formulated in terms of competencies. The results of the training are formulated for the whole program, as well as for individual course units or modules. In this case, the results of the passage of individual courses should contribute to the formation of the overall results of the program [200. P. 13].
The ESSA experts developed typical structural characteristics for each training cycle in the direction of preparation "Educational Science".
1. The first training cycle. Preparing for a bachelor's degree in the direction of "Educational Science" combines an interdisciplinary approach with a deep study of the chosen subject. The corresponding programs cover a wide range of intellectual resources and the results of theoretical research, as well as academic disciplines that contribute to an understanding of the phenomenon of education in the context of its functioning and development.
In practice, there is a tendency to strengthen the research component of educational programs of this cycle, which is accompanied by the study of such subjects as "Methodological bases of pedagogical research", "Methods and models of research in education" and Statistics & quot ;.
Bachelor's degree in the direction of "Educational science", as a rule, work in the following fields of activity: development of educational principles; studying the history of education; sociological research in education; adult education; psychological and pedagogical support of the educational process; work with youth and communities; curriculum development; management in the field of education; human resource management; management in the field of informatization and librarianship; social and pedagogical activity; corrective-compensating education; activities in the field of educational policy; development of educational innovations; school management, etc.
2. Second cycle of the training (Master) in the direction of "Educational Science" provides a deeper professionalization in the chosen direction. Special programs include pedagogical psychology, management of education, the basics of health, pedagogical anthropology, the philosophy of education and the sociology of education. In addition, the didactic component is necessarily present in the content of education at the master's level. At least 30% of the time is spent writing a dissertation on the materials of research or implementation of an applied project. In some countries, for example in Spain, Finland, Ireland, England, the awarding of individual levels of the second level is preceded by practice in professional institutions. In other countries, the content of training in the second cycle, by contrast, is limited to research.
Typical fields of professional activity, in which holders of master's degree work in the direction of "Educational Science", are: correction-compensating education; education of the "third age"; intercultural education; assessment in education; school management; adult education; leisure education; social pedagogy, etc.
3. The third cycle involves training in doctoral studies, conducting an original study, on the basis of which thesis is prepared and defended.An important step towards the creation of a European structure for comparable and comparable qualifications of higher education was made in May 2005 at a conference of European Ministers of Education in Bergen, Switzerland, where it was decided to introduce the so-called arch structure - < strong> framework for qualifications for the EHEA, - consisting of three cycles, common descriptors for each cycle based on learning outcomes and competencies, and establishing credit ranges in the first and second cycles [160. P. 194].
The qualifications framework for the EHEA acts as an external framework ( metamorphic ) in relation to the national qualification framework (hereinafter referred to as the "NRC"). It is considered as an arched structure because it sets wide limits only on the external contours and boundaries of the NSC, acting as a tool to help provide a clearer understanding of how the different qualifications in the EHEA are related to each other.
The arched framework does not replace national qualifications frameworks and is not an automatic mechanism for comparing qualifications with each other. It is characterized by a high degree of generalization and provides general descriptions of qualifications for the three cycles - bachelor, master and doctor (PhD) - in terms of the expected results of education. As a basis in these descriptions, the approximate duration of the first cycle is 180-240 credits, the second - 90-120 credits. The characteristics of the cycle for obtaining a doctoral degree in terms of loans are not determined.
The main objectives of the qualifications framework for the EHEA are:
- give citizens the opportunity to understand how different national, regional, European qualifications are related in higher education;
- promote flexibility, mobility, transparency, recognition and integration between higher education systems in Europe;
- to protect the diversity of educational programs at the national, regional and institutional levels;
- to promote the competitiveness and effectiveness of higher education in Europe [200. 122].
The next step in achieving these goals was the development of the European Framework for Qualifications for Lifelong Learning (hereinafter referred to as the "ERC"). This is a broader document (compared to the previously reviewed qualification framework for the EHEA), covering all levels of education and being a tool for comparing skill levels in various qualification systems and ensuring the availability of continuing education, creating equal opportunities for living in a knowledge society, further integrating the European the labor market with respect for the rich diversity of national education systems " [182. 3].
The use of the EDC makes it possible to effectively coordinate the interests of the sphere of work and the sphere of education; recognize the results of both formal and informal education; to provide professional mobility of workers of various qualifications on a European scale on the basis of mutual recognition of their qualifications.
The European Qualifications Framework ensures the matching of requirements across all levels of vocational education, from primary to postgraduate. There are eight such levels, two of which (sixth and seventh) correspond to higher education. For each level, the character of the requirements for the graduate in three positions is quite definitely, albeit in a general form:
- knowledge ( knowledge ) - theoretical or empirically obtained;
- Skills/Skills ( skills ) - cognitive (requiring the use of logic, intuition and creative thinking) and practical (requiring physical skills and using appropriate methods, materials);
- ( competence ), which is described in terms of responsibility and autonomy.
Pay attention to the sequence of listing the results of education in the ERC: first personal qualities (starting with the relationship of a person to himself), and only at the very end - actually professional. We emphasize that this is a description of the levels of professional education [46. P. 39].
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