Designing and solving pedagogical tasks aimed at developing...

8.3. Designing and solving pedagogical tasks aimed at developing the child's position as a subject of different types of activity, creative individuality

In modern requirements to the educational programs of kindergartens, compiled on the basis of exemplary programs for the education and training of children of early and preschool age, great importance is given to designing and solving pedagogical tasks aimed at developing the child's position as a subject of different types of activity and creative individuality. This is due to the implementation of the process and situational approach to the quality management of the educational process carried out in accordance with these programs.

Within the framework of these approaches in the kindergarten, conditions should be created for the development of all types of children's activities. For example, in GOU kindergarten No. 2173 of the South-Western Administrative District of Moscow they are described, as shown in Table. 24.

Table 24

Designing educational activities during the day

Forms of educational activity

Senior group, min

Pre-school group, min

Educational activity is carried out in the process of organizing various types of children's activities

Game,

communicative,

Work,

cognitive-research,

productive,

music and art,

read

85

100-120

motor activity (motor mode)

130

165

Educational activity is carried out in the course of regime

moments

catering, sleeping

225-230

200 220

Walk

175

230

Children's independent play activity

Different types of games for children's interests

195

170

195

180

Interaction with families of children on the implementation of the main general educational program of preschool education

Frontal, group and individual forms of work, including in the framework of joint educational activities with children

210

200

165

Specification of the tasks of educational activity is carried out at the level of complex thematic planning of educational and educational work with children and providing alternatives for selecting different types of activities for pupils. As an example, let us cite a table developed by the pedagogical collective of the GOU of the Center for Child Development - kindergarten No. 1745 of the Moscow Department of Social Sciences (Table 25).

It is very important not just to involve children in different kinds of children's and educational activities, but to take their interests into account. So, several differentiated groups of pupils are distinguished:

- for children from the first differentiated group (about 40%) are characterized by the consciousness of interest, the ease of its occurrence; the existence of a strong motivational basis, an understanding of why they are engaged in this activity, stability and duration of interest - moreover, participating in various forms of organization of activities, they show the breadth of their interests and high motivation to achieve. In the main, the cognitive and emotional interests of preschoolers are combined. They are further reflected in interest in engaging in experimentation and design;

- for children from the second differentiated group children (33%) are characterized by an average level of consciousness of interest; the presence of a motivational basis, manifested through interest in activity and activity, but their interest is relatively stable. They are characterized by the emotional attractiveness of the process of activity itself, its fascination, but the motivation for achieving performance results is low. The general interest does not always become the basis for the development of differentiated interests. Basically, this happens through the union of cognitive and subject-practical interests. However, in this case, the direct interest in the games depends strongly on the success of the child in the peer group and the relationship with the educator. It can be supported by playing and productive kinds of children's activities, because they are well combined with them;

- for children from the third differentiated group (27%) it is characteristic that interest does not arise immediately, with difficulty: they do not realize what they are doing for this activity. Most of the interest is manifested in motor activity and labor. Manifestations of cognitive interest are characterized by superficiality, his involuntariness and narrowness. Interest in games is situational and unstable. Children have no desire to overcome difficulties, there is a lack of confidence in their capabilities.

Given the differentiated groups of children, the teacher creates situations for involving low-active children with unstable and unexpressed interests into joint activities with adults or peers. There is an effect of "infection with social emotions", especially if the educator uses the method of anticipatory approval of the actions of children, comments on the consequences of their actions and activities, presenting the result as already accomplished. It is very important to identify the children - the emotional leaders of the group, who are immediately involved in the activity themselves and draw their example of peers into it. These pupils usually have well expressed signs of subjectivity of activity. They unconsciously translate it as a value for a group of children.

The educator should, in addition, have worked out methods of forming subjectivity in different types of child activities. MN Polyakova refers to them the methods of setting the goal of the activity and the realization conceived through the definition of the sequence and ways of performing the tasks of an adult. At the same time, she points out the need to coordinate each child's actions with that of other children, and also to evaluate the result obtained.

Table 25

Approximate structure of educational and educational work planning (put on)

Mode

Integration of educational areas

Joint activities of adults and children, taking into account the integration of educational areas

Organization of the developing environment for the independent activity of children (activity centers, all premises of the group)

Interaction with parents/social partners (theaters, sports, art schools, general educational institutions)

Group, subgroup

Custom

Educational activity in regime moments

Morning: games, watch. individual work, errands, morning exercises, KGN, breakfast, games

Are indicated the educational areas, the tasks of which are realized in this activity and the forms of work with children

Swimming pool, morning gymnastics; didactic games, reading of fiction; conversation; educational games; articulatory and palpable gymnastics

Conversation; imitative movements; learning games. Fixing the passed on educational areas

Explanation, showing on a personal example, reminder, situational conversation, reminder

Enrichment of the subject-developing environment in the group.

Activation of children to independent activity in the centers: books, nature, artistic creation; duty roster; story-role games; self-service; modeling; keeping the nature calendar

Conversations, consultations (individual, group, subgroup). Joint holidays, leisure, classes. Excursions, observations, reading. Joint creativity. Organization of joint labor activity (work in nature, in a group) - Subbotniks. Family creative projects, presentations, competitions, an intellectual marathon. Parent meetings, lounges, the work of parent clubs, seminars, open views, a master class. Workshops. Educational educational programs. Questioning. Interactive interaction through the DOW site. Registration of parental corners. Booklets, information sheets. Photo Albums.

Excursions with children. Reading to children, memorizing by heart.

Excursions to school, home of creativity. Show of puppet theater performances

Direct educational activity

(scheduled activities) The activity and the summary of activities are indicated

Games, preparation for a walk. Walk: games, observation, work, individual work, physical culture and health work

Moving game, sports games, physical culture on the street. Observations of objects of animate and inanimate nature. Target walks, excursions. Work on the plot, in a flower garden, a vegetable garden

Conversation; imitative movements; learning games. Fixing the passed on educational areas.

Story-role play, observation, experimentation, research activity, design, developing games, story, conversation, creation of collections, project activity. Problem situations, making layouts, modeling, comparing, explaining, showing, personal example, situational conversation

Enrichment of the subject-developing environment in the group, on the site. Subject-role, didactic, table-printed games. Games with sand (with snow). Experimentation (sand, water, snow, wind). Modeling. Experiments.

Productive activities

Group, subgroup

Custom

Educational activity in regime moments

Return from the walk. KGN, lunch, work before bedtime

Swimming pool, reading fiction

Independent activity of children in the centers of activity

Problem situations, mock-ups, modeling, comparison, explanation, display, personal example, situational conversation

Independent activity of children in different centers of activity

Evening: health and hardening procedures, KGN, afternoon tea, games, children's independent activity, leisure, mugs, individual work

Swimming, gymnastics after sleep, hardening. Mugs. Subject-role, didactic, leisure games. Reading fiction, video. Quizzes, competitions, KVN. Joint work of children. Exhibitions. Dramatization.

Show of plays

Conversation; imitative movements; learning games. Fixing the passed on educational areas.

Enrichment of the subject-developing environment in the group.

Experimentation games, story amateur, didactic,

Desktop Print Games. Independent artistic activity, creative tasks; duty; keeping the calendar of nature. Work in the centers: nature, books, artistic creativity. Experiments. Buildings for the story games. Productive activities

Walking

All events are planned in the same way as the first

Half day

Examples of developing scenarios for such an evolving interaction are given in the program "Kindergarten - the house of joy" NM Krylova and VT Ivanova. They rely on the model of the structure of the joint activity of the child and the teacher:

- What do we want to do?

- what do we want to do? What should I convert?

- What are we going to do?

- how to do in order?

- What happened? What is the result?

The model is realized through the practical actions of an adult (finger bending, starting with the little finger) in a specific situation, related to the discussion of the algorithm of behavior in regime moments or the organization of independent productive activity of children. It can be presented in the form of a visual diagram or a symbolic plan. Such a model can underlie the description of the model of organized or semi-organized educational activities per day. A child is involved and participates in it as a full-fledged subject of educational activity.

When organizing the independent activity of children for the development of the subjectivity of the child, the teacher should be able to create the following conditions (according to AG Gogoberidze, MV Kruleht, MP Polyakova, OV Solntseva, etc.):

- the design of the content of the educational process, taking into account the characteristics of the children's subculture;

- the child's appropriation of the game as a significant activity; - emotionally positive focus of the child on the partner but the game;

- a multifunctional game material aimed at the gradual complication of the content and form of game activity;

- Flexible tactics of the guidance of the teacher by the game; - mastering of children by generalized models of game behavior in games;

- the ability to act freely and independently, improvising, bringing into play an element of novelty;

- initiative and independence of the choice of other activities;

- interest and selective attitude to activity;

- a special interaction between a teacher and children (an adult - an observer, a partner and an assistant, a consultant and an expert), which activates the emotionally-subjective and activity-subjective manifestations of pupils;

- involving children in co-individual and co-consistent models of cooperation among themselves.

In this case, the subjectivity of the child manifests itself (according to the studies of E. V. Bondarevskaya, V. Petrovsky, V. I. Slobodchikov, N. E. Shchurkova, I. Yakimanskaya, etc.) in the ability to show initiative and independence, to be the strategy of its activities, set and adjust goals, adopt and implement a solution; in the readiness to build their own actions; in the ability to assess the consequences of their behavior; in readiness to self-change and improve, and also to make plans for the future.

Thanks to this, according to BT Likhachev, a child as a subject manifests itself in the educational process as an "active self-developing individuality" and "personality seeking to satisfy their needs for activity, relationships and communication, assimilating, accumulating, critically processing educational conditions in specific conditions, accepting or resisting them." However, it is very important at this stage that the development of this individual, as expressed in II. Shebeko, was not realized as "self-development of an individual using the world around for this purpose". Meanwhile, the modern stage of the development of society focuses precisely on this on the resources of the educational environment and space. This means that the teacher should be very cautious about the development of such resources, since it is he who answers, is responsible to the society for broadcasting and appropriation of cultural values ​​by the younger generation. The principle of cultural development of the child in this respect should be on the first place in the hierarchy of the principles of pedagogical support for the child and the design of the tasks of pedagogical interaction. They can be aimed at forming the basis of the personal culture of the pupils and the system of integrative qualities of the individual, including the manifestation of their independence and creative individuality.

An important condition in this case is that educators understand the need to plan conditions for independent activity and creativity of children throughout not only one day and a week, but also a month and even a year. So, in the program "Istoki and Rainbow it is planned to discuss with children places of snoring and location of materials, rules of working with them, providing samples that children can act in independent activities. At the level of teaching children the technologies of organizing independent activity, the ability to determine goals and tasks, analyze the conditions and means of the forthcoming activity, formulate its algorithm and control the result of its implementation, the educators work in the program "Kindergarten - the house of joy" and Golden Key & quot ;. It turns out that the conditions for organizing and supporting children's activity and independence in program and methodological materials are discussed, but it should be recognized that in practice, everything is different. In our opinion, this is due to the fact that teachers themselves do not know enough the technology of organizing their own independent activity and, as a consequence, the independent activity of children. This is especially important at the stage of designing and implementing medium-term and long-term pedagogical tasks aimed at developing the child's position as a subject of different types of activity, creative individuality.

These problems can be solved: you need to analyze pedagogical tasks - immediately, at the time of their design and planning - in terms of organizing independent work and children's activities. One of the variants of such an analysis is set forth in Table. 26.

Then you need to imagine how the children, the group as a whole and the individual subgroups will react, for example, "strong" and weak & quot ;. Introduce options for children's behavior in the abstract of an organized form of educational activity. Then carry out a forecast of those problematic pedagogical situations that may arise during the organization of organized and independent, collective and individual activities of children. Think about the algorithm for getting out of them (for example, in the form of providing children with "technological karg" activities or symbols - reminders of possible difficulties in work, etc.) and criteria for evaluating the results of children's activities and activities.

Table 26

Algorithm for formulating tasks for independent work of children

General

goals and results of the educational process

Stage 1 of the organization of children's activities, allowing you to tune into independent work

Stage 2 of the organization of children's activities, allowing to get involved in independent work

Stage 3 of the organization of children's activities, allowing to move to the level of organization of independent activities

Stage 4 of the organization of children's activities, allowing to carry out independent activities

Step 1. Goals and results of studying program material at the knowledge level

Name ... List ... Tell ... Describe ... Label ... Formulate ... Determine ... Draw with a schema ...

-

-

Step 2. Goals and results of studying program material at the level of understanding the meaning

Compare ... Choose ... Set ... Tell your own words ...

Find ... Explain the meaning ... Prove ... Draw conclusions ... Give examples ...

Illustrate ...

-

-

Step 3. Goals and results of studying program material at the conscious use level

-

Show the relationship ... Decide ... Find ... Explain ...

Change ... Calculate ... Show how ... Explain why ... Use ... to solve ...

-

Stage 4. Goals and results of studying program material at the material analysis level

-

Analyze ... Explain the reasons ... Compare ... break down in order ... Find the differences and similarities ... Name the general word ...

Classify ...

Contrast ... Explain how and why ...

-

Stage 5. Goals and results of studying program material at the level of material synthesis

-

-

Tell me different ... Make up ... Develop ...

Create ... Plan ... Think of another option ... What will happen if ... Is there another reason (consequence) ...

Step 6. Goals and results of the study of program material at the assessment level

-

-

Define and explain ... Formulate the rules ... Select ... and choose ... Weigh the possibilities ...

Give comments ... Rate ... Check ... What do you think about ... Choose what you like best, explain why ...

In this case, effective conditions are created for the transition of children from one level of organization of independent work to another and, ultimately, to the level of organization of independent activity:

1 type and level of independent work - the main goal is to develop the ability of children to select in the outer plan what is required of them, on the basis of the given algorithm of activity and the conditions set by the teacher. The purpose of the work is compliance with the requirements of an adult. The very activity of children at the same time is a fully or partially organized teacher.

2 type of independent work - the formation of knowledge and activities that allow reproducing or partially reconstructing the structure and content of previously acquired information. The goal of the child's work is to choose the right solution to the educational task, the option to exit the pedagogical situation. The activity of children is a partially organized teacher.

3 type of independent work - the formation of knowledge and activities that underlie the solution of standard problems and are expressed in the search, formulation and implementation of the solution. The purpose of the child's work is to solve typical tasks in the course of carrying out organized activities, transferring these skills to unorganized activities. The activities of children at the same time is a partially organized teacher or an independent teacher.

4 type of independent work - the formation of prerequisites for independent and creative activity, the establishment of new relationships and relationships, the generation of new ideas. The purpose of the work is to solve non-standard tasks in the course of carrying out organized and unorganized activities. The activities of children are independent at the same time.

The levels of complexity of the organization of independent work of children at the stage of mastering each section of the education and training program related to physical, cognitive-speech, artistic-aesthetic and social-personal development will be different for each pupil. Accordingly, this will provide a sufficiently high estimate of the achievements of the child of preschool age as a subject of activity at each stage of the kindergarten and at the time of transition to primary school.

thematic pictures

Also We Can Offer!

Other services that we offer

If you don’t see the necessary subject, paper type, or topic in our list of available services and examples, don’t worry! We have a number of other academic disciplines to suit the needs of anyone who visits this website looking for help.

How to ...

We made your life easier with putting together a big number of articles and guidelines on how to plan and write different types of assignments (Essay, Research Paper, Dissertation etc)