Development and formation
Categories of development and formation of general scientific. Philosophers, sociologists, politicians use them to explain social processes and their consequences. Pedagogy also resorts to the use of these categories, although not as often and not as much as they deserve. Usually, pedagogy is satisfied and concludes with its subject - "upbringing". But why is education necessary, if not for the development and formation of a person in accordance with the intended goals? In this connection, no doubt, pedagogy should bolderly include the "formation" in the sphere of his immediate subject.
Formation is the process of becoming a person under the influence of all factors without exception: ecological, social, economic, pedagogical, etc. Education - one of the most important, but not the only factor in the formation of personality. Formation means the level reached by the person, some completeness, completeness, achievement of a level of maturity.
Generating - not yet established pedagogical category, despite its already quite wide use. The meaning of formation is too narrow, it expands to limitless limits. In pedagogical literature of previous years, the notion of formation was often used to refer to uncontrollable, random influences on a person. For example, the well-known author of pedagogical manuals PN Gruzdev proposed that only spontaneous education - "the impact of various conditions on people regardless of conscious activity" - be called the formation.
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The boundaries of the application in pedagogy of one more general scientific concept are not defined - "development". Synthesizing the most established definitions, we come to the conclusion that development is the process and result of quantitative and qualitative changes of a person. It is associated with constant, unceasing changes, transitions from one state to another, ascent from the simple to the complex, from the lower to the higher. In human development, the effect of the universal philosophical law of mutual transition of quantitative changes in qualitative and vice versa is manifested.
The development of personality is the most complicated process of objective reality. For in-depth study of this process, modern science has gone along the path of differentiating the components of development, singling out the intellectual, moral, physical, spiritual, social and other aspects in it. Pedagogy primarily studies the problems of intellectual and moral development of the personality in interrelation with all other components.
Human development is presented in Table. 1.
Movement: from simple to complex: from imperfect to more perfect: from the old qualitative state to the new; from simple forms of reflection of reality to spiritual perfection
The struggle of contradictions
Internal and external, taken in unity
Heredity, environment, education
The transition of quantity to quality and vice versa
Among the basic pedagogical categories, some researchers propose to include such fairly general concepts as " self-education ", & pedagogical process & quot ;, pedagogical interaction & quot ;, educational products & quot ;, pedagogical technologies & quot ;, Innovations , etc. Recognizing the highlighted concepts as important components of the pedagogical theory, we will consider their meaning in the context of studying special issues.
The relationship between the selected pedagogical categories is presented in the form of a conditional scheme (Figure 1). Of course, in a living pedagogical process, the interrelationships between them are much more complicated than in theoretically purified constructions.
Fig. 1. The ratio between pedagogical categoriesBy the way, desperate to build models adequate for the reality of real life, some teachers call not to recognize the differences between upbringing, education and training, offer to give up even pedagogical concepts, so as not to use one alone instead of others. The insolvency of this approach was criticized by L.N. Tolstoy as early as 1862: "There are many words that do not have an exact definition, confused with one another, but at the same time necessary for the transmission of thoughts, such are the words: education, education, and even education" ;
Pedagogy is already capable of raising the question of creating more advanced scientific definitions, the use of which will lead to a more distinct differentiation of pedagogical phenomena, processes and factors, and hence to better management of the processes of education, education, upbringing, development and formation. >
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Review and refine the pedagogical categories
On how exactly pedagogy will determine its subject, directly and directly depends on what will be realized in practice and what product we will get "on the way out". We will establish that the main direction is upbringing, and practice will be oriented towards priority provision of education. We will determine that the task of the school is education, and the teaching will be concerned with the solution of educational problems. And if we establish that the main thing is to develop a person, his best qualities and natural talents, upbringing and education will be in the background.
What is the definition of giving pedagogy and its main categories to properly direct the efforts of practitioners? The question is still one of sharply debatable issues. It has long been known that when names ( names ) come into conflict with realities, a process of uncertainty, wandering in the darkness begins, and, ultimately, the destruction of practice. Well expressed opinion of Virgil on this occasion Olita Augustou:
When names are not corrected.
Cease to be relevant speech;
When speaking is no longer appropriate,
There are no cases.
The activities of the practice teacher depend on the definition of the main categories he took into his soul. That definition, at which in due time the educator's attention was consciously or unconsciously concentrated, he transfers to the practical plane and accentuates his activity precisely on the moments present in the determination. There is no doubt that those educators who claim that they do not engage in upbringing and the school should not do it, studied pedagogy, which was defined as the science of education.
Edication and roburcing
Traditional pedagogical categories suffer from uncertainty. No matter how we clarify them, highlighting something broadly, then in a narrow sense, we will not eliminate the main shortcoming: categories of science are identified with the concepts of everyday language. Education remains for each of us a concept familiar from childhood, and no matter how we try to separate it from the scientific definition, in our consciousness its original identity remains.
The identification of categories of pedagogy with everyday words serves as almost the main obstacle to the path of improving science. Based on intuitive definitions, it is difficult to develop an effective theory where the dependence of upbringing on certain conditions and factors, its movement towards the goal and the results of this movement would be noticeable. It is even more difficult to provide convincing evidence of the change in upbringing-learning under the influence of various pedagogical actions. In this regard, people do not notice much progress in theory or in practice. Criticism continues - education is trampled on the spot, education is lagging behind life, upbringing is stagnant. Although it has largely changed due to technological progress.
Representatives of more advanced sciences look at pedagogy with its usual scientific apparatus and can not understand - where it is a question of everyday affairs, and where about the scientific system of education and training. It was correctly noted even in ancient times: if science can not go beyond the ordinary vocabulary and does not create its own conceptual apparatus, it is difficult for it to stand out in science.
Education, training, development occur in every person, always and everywhere. Even in a dream. Whether he wants or does not want, goes to school or does without it - the vital processes of education, development, education are and lead to certain results. Education increases, the forces of man are multiplied, necessary to improve life. Only in this case we are talking about Occasional, ie. spontaneous, unmanageable training, education, development. This process is characterized by very low performance.
To speed up the process, schools were invented in ancient times, where in specially created conditions the process was accelerated, and its results multiplied. This is a manageable upbringing process that differs from the natural by many important characteristics, especially the creation of special conditions and management.
Comparison with atomic physics arises by itself. In nature, the process of decay and transformation of elements constantly occurs. This is the so-called natural background, which never leads to a nuclear reaction. Physicists are well-informed about him, but he is not the subject of studying nuclear physics. The latter is engaged in the fact that he studies and creates special conditions for accelerating the process of disintegration of elements, controlling them and obtaining very necessary energy. Nuclear reactors have been created in which the processes of nuclear decay are many times more intensive and lead to the release of huge energies.
Similarly, in education. The natural background of education has always existed, exists and will exist, but can not lead to significant progress. Special, purposeful actions are needed to multiply the power of upbringing. A reactor is needed so that the processes can be controlled. It took schools in which the processes of education become powerful and manageable.
Many would have succeeded in physics if they had not learned to distinguish the natural background from controlled decay? It was necessary first of all to distinguish between these processes, for which a special scientific apparatus was created to designate each process, each action and element. Now physicists clearly understand what is what.
Pedagogy has to do the same, and the first is to separate the natural background of education from the managed one. Just as physicists who invented a special terminology for controlled nuclear reactions, teachers should separate naturally occurring pedagogical processes from the processes taking place in pedagogical reactors-schools, universities, correctional institutions.
Let's approach the question from the other side. Pedagogical theory does not fit well with practice. Science indefinitely breeds, separates and clarifies the concepts of "upbringing" and training & quot ;, but in practice they are inseparable. Education and training in practice are merged in a single process. Go to class and see what the children are doing. Tell me, what is happening now - education or upbringing? Does mom teach her baby - does she bring up or train him? The latest news on TV or from the newspaper - they teach us or educate us? The textbook of pedagogy, which you are reading now, is educating or training? For all these questions, the answer is one - and educates, and trains.
Training is unthinkable without education, and education can not exist without training. Educating - teaching, teaching - we bring up. Training serves as a means of education (so speak - education through training) and upbringing paves the way for learning (there is an expression - educating education). Always and everywhere training is fused with education and represents a single, organically indivisible process. So why bred these concepts?
Sharing training and education is the same as breeding food and drink. We usually eat bread, but drink water. And if the bread is thin and the water is firm? This does not mean that you can not separately and thoroughly study food or drinks. In order to better understand the education and upbringing, they can conditionally isolate into isolated systems and study each one. But it should not be forgotten that they constitute an organic unity.
Unfortunately, teachers forgot about this and went the wrong way. There was a rigid separation of upbringing from education. The author of this book also failed to avoid separation of upbringing from teaching. In the textbooks of past years, for the sake of tradition, this division was carried out and consolidated. The theory of teaching (didactics) and the theory of upbringing (educator) diverge ever further. Experts refuse to understand each other. Only in practice everything was as it was, it remains. Why do we need a theory that is not consistent with practice?
We will not touch upon the history of the development of the conceptual apparatus of pedagogy. In the old days, the concepts of training and education did not get divorced. Everything that related to it was usually called one word. In most modern languages there is no word "upbringing". For example, in English the meaning is expressed by the word education & quot ;, and when translating texts it is very difficult to decide where to use the word education & quot ;, and where training & quot ;. By the way, Americans have worked hard to cleanse their conceptual apparatus, as a result of which their pedagogy has become practical, rational and businesslike.
In our pedagogy of the 1930s. noticed this problem and even tried to solve it. However, beyond the timid suggestion, replace the two words training and education one concept eduction did not go. In the encyclopedias, the words eduction no, but it's easy to see that it was formed from the Latin root. The Latin word educare everywhere and always means "education, upbringing". Educandum translates as educated & quot ;. As explained in Slovoopedia & quot ;, education (from Latin educatio ) training, education & quot ;.
The fact is that the communist upbringing of the youth, to which the main emphasis of Soviet pedagogy was postponed, was not combined with the "eduction" (in the sense of education and upbringing), in which it was easy to guess the "bourgeois" subtext. What else for eduction? " The concept and term was banned. Since then, concepts with practically the same content have taken root in pedagogy - "labor training" and "labor education", "mental education", "mental education", "mental formation", "mental development", " etc. Their indiscriminate use blurs the already fuzzy pedagogical theory.
Pedagogy faced the need to refine its conceptual apparatus, because it is impossible to build a better theory and technologies on former fuzzy statements.
Do not look for a new term. The merged education with education will be called education. The education-learning process will be called educational. This is an organized, this created conditions the process of education and training, managed by teachers and leading to a pre-planned result.
What is the connection of two concepts? First, it reflects the true state of things. If training and education can not be dissolved in practice, then why should they be bred in theory? Secondly, it essentially simplifies the theory, where it is no longer necessary to derive and consider separate laws for education or training, which in their essence coincide. Today we share them more artificially and subjectively, believing in our own discretion that in some cases there is more education, and in others - training. Thirdly, the decisive conditions for accelerating the process are singled out-the creation of special conditions and management. Fourth, the ways are opened for the modernization of ways and means of upbringing.
Practitioners are also relieved. A single, organically indivisible educational process does not divide itself more into education and upbringing, and there is no need to single out educational (didactic) and educational goals in it, which was characteristic of a socialist school, where the education of communist ideology was always put on the first place and registered in a separate line . For example, if the didactic objective of the lesson was defined as the solution of quadratic equations, then an educational goal was always planned for it, for example, the formation of a communist worldview. We are so accustomed to this that we still do not notice absurdities and can not abandon the established approach. But times have changed.
Let us now turn to the categories of education, development, formation. A survey of teachers was conducted. They were asked: "What do the concepts of" development "mean? and "formation" in pedagogy and how often do you use them? & quot ;. If the concept of development most teachers explain correctly, then the "formation" has a vague meaning and an indefinite scope. We just say "formation of a culture of behavior" for the beauty of the syllable, although in fact it is about cultivating cultural habits, or even easier - learning to brush your teeth. We see the same thing in most other cases. In foreign pedagogy and psychology, the concept of "development" use widely, but avoid talking about formation, rightly believing that it is not very suitable for conveying the meaning of pedagogical actions.
The above categories are difficult to use to construct an effective theory. Concepts education & quot ;, development & quot ;, formation also need clarification, primarily in the sense that they are assigned to the goal in the hierarchy of the eDuculation movement. Education, development, formation is logical to consider as effects, results, products of the process of education. The educational process is also conceived in order that the younger generations acquire energy, the power of life, become trained and educated. In educational institutions of children, figuratively speaking, as particles in the collider, "disperse" to the desired level and acceleration. The forces of training, education, education, development and formation ensure a person the opportunity to adapt effectively to the requirements of life.
Education, development, formation, we select in the general process and define as the general concept, which we call roburcing (from Latin Roburs - forces). It is not difficult to see in this term the Latin root and the United States ending. In this view, education, development and formation express different levels of human perfection. The first (lower) level of roburcing - education, higher (medium) - development, highest - formation. The steps of roburcing as an ascension of man to perfection can be defined as follows: educated, developed, formed. A man who gained strength. In education, our strength. Educacia - robur nostrum est.
What did we do? Two key concepts, the two main categories are education and roburcing. Education is a fostering and training merged in a single process, which are carried out in specially created conditions (teaching and educational institutions) according to specially designed management programs, in accordance with the goal set and lead to a pre-planned product. Robursations - the levels of productivity of education. A schematic diagram of the main categories of pedagogy in the new interpretation is shown in Fig. 2.
In the light of the new definitions, pedagogy is defined as the science of eduction and roburcing.
Some time will pass until new concepts replace obsolete ones, and teachers will appreciate their favorable and protective influence. In the following chapters, we will see that the application of these definitions makes the theory compact, logical and evident.
Fig. 2. New interpretation of pedagogical categories
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