Development, improvement of social abilities of children and adults as a form of development of pedagogical potential of society
In social and educational activities an important role and place is occupied by social abilities, which are the potential of human activity, allowing him to act in a certain way and in a certain direction. If a person's needs reflect his desire for someone or something, the ability reflects the person's ability or willingness to do something or help someone. The need operates with idioms "I want", "I want", "I need anything", and the ability is "can", "ready", "I know", "is capable of anything". It is man's abilities that make up the basis of a person's potential in achieving the result of his life activity. Our task is not only to describe the essence of the activity of this element of activity, but to a significant extent in the presentation of the process of their development and, in some situations, the creation of new opportunities that ensure a new content of activities. After all, abilities are not a passive element of activity, but developing in the process of activity, actively influence the content. An important place in the life of a person is occupied by social abilities.
From the field of psychology it is known that the ability of the individual is an integral part of the direction, therefore, a significant qualitative characteristic of the personality, the development of which is successfully implemented by means, forms and methods of instruction. In contrast to the needs and direction of the personality, which is a dynamic property of the individual, the abilities are of a stable nature and are characterized by a certain stability. They to some extent carry characteristics such as the higher nervous activity of man, a kind of reflect the features of temperament. Therefore, they are more stable than other personality traits.
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The stability of a person's abilities depends to a large extent on the internal conditions, on the available human inclinations, on his biological component, which for the individual remain practically stable throughout his life and determine the initial possibilities for the development of his abilities. The variety of abilities is entirely determined by the variety of external factors that create different situations, and hence the appearance of various requirements of the surrounding reality to the person. As a result of the impact of environmental factors in a person who has certain makings, there are abilities to establish an equilibrium with respect to the requirements of the surrounding reality to him in the form of talent, genius. Thus, a person responds to external stimuli, which determines his further behavior, individual actions and, finally, conscious activity. When a child is included in a significant activity for him, repeated repetition of these reactions in a person develops a conditioned reflex to stimuli, as a result of which a stable property of the personality is formed in the form of abilities in something or in someone. Abilities distinguish between general and specific. Common abilities include the possibilities of memory, thinking, attention, volitional actions, etc. Specific abilities include the ability of sense organs to music, artistic abilities, abilities for sports, mathematical abilities, etc.
The ability to solve the problems of another, to help someone means the social aspect of abilities, is seen as a social ability. In favorable conditions for the development of a person's consciousness, any of these abilities can grow from the level of makings to the level of curiosity, interest, inclination, giftedness in the capacity for activity or communication, i.e. become a specific ability - a social ability. Considering social abilities as the highest level of development of a person's ability, her activity and at the same time as an element of a person's potential, manifested in the ability to solve social problems of the environment, manifested in social behavior, in social activities, the ways of forming the social abilities of the individual are opened before us.
If a person's ability means a person's potential for action, for activity, then social ability is a kind of a specific ability, a person's social potency, his ability and willingness to interact with other people, with the necessary knowledge and skills, and skills and ownership of them.
Social ability manifests itself in the ability to establish contact with another person; in the readiness to establish contact with another person; in the ability to communicate with another person; the availability of skills to understand another person; in the ability to provide him with all possible assistance; in the presence of knowledge of the ideal in the person of another person; willingness to work in a team; in the ability to participate in joint activities; the availability of knowledge about the life and activities of others; in the readiness to accept sympathy from other people; willingness to accept help from other people; in the ability to be a member of collective labor; readiness to improve the results of collective work; the availability of knowledge about the goal, as well as the skills of participation in the creation of a socially significant product; willingness to come to the aid of other people; in the capacity for self-sacrifice for the sake of other people; in the availability of skills to do good deeds towards other people; in the ability to believe in a person and his positive actions; in the ability to take the primacy of the social over the individual; in the ability to suppress the selfish traits of his character; readiness to develop altruistic qualities; in the development of skills to reinforce the social activity of the individual; the readiness to acquire new social values; in the ability of self-expression in the social environment; in the ability of self-realization in a joint activity; in the ability to achieve respect, gain prestige among other people, etc.
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The range of social abilities can be expanded at the expense of professionally important abilities, such as possessing the skills of conscientious participation in collective work, the availability of willingness to render unselfish help to another in labor, the ability to show admiration and joy for the successes of another, the ability to accept the priority of solving collective tasks relative to their own, the ability to be attentive to other people, to their problems, etc.
Thus, it becomes clear that social ability is determined by social conditions and, consequently, can successfully develop under the influence of social factors that are deliberately or involuntarily acting on a person.
Based on the possibilities of the socio-pedagogical approach, we consider the development of the pedagogical potential of the society through the development of the social abilities of the individual.
Development of social abilities is represented as a process of transformation of the energy (opportunities) of the society into the qualities of the individual, significant in the process of socialization. This kind of metamorphosis is possible if there is a certain group of methods for the development (recovery) of the pedagogical potential of the society that allow the expedient development of new and restoration of the existing traditional and innovative opportunities and resources of the impact of society on the individual, the activities of the social institution. These include: the method of creating innovative technologies; method of activization of socially significant cases ; method of stimulating interpersonal interaction; method of social adaptation; method of social rehabilitation; method of projects; method of modeling; methods of social learning; method of step-by-step development of the environment.
The entire process of development of the social abilities of the individual is carried out on the basis of an individual trajectory of the student's personal development. For these purposes, an individual map (trajectory) for the gradual development of social abilities is compiled for each of them. Among the most important of them we distinguish: the stage of diagnosing the initial level of social abilities; the stage of active inclusion of the personality in self-knowledge; the stage of development of the sphere of personality abilities; the stage of stimulating the social abilities of the individual; stage of improving the social abilities of the individual; a stage of an estimation of efficiency of process of formation of social abilities of the person
The first stage - the stage of learning cognitive resources and personal interests, or the diagnostic stage of development of social abilities. At this stage the specialist's attention is directed to the study of the individual's pedagogical potential, the level of development of her social abilities. In diagnostic procedures, he is interested in the presence of the initial hobbies of the person, the level of development of his general abilities: memory, attention, thinking, perception of the surrounding reality, development of feelings, ability to volitional actions, speech development, good physical and psychomotor data, development of olfactory, touch, sight and hearing, and also specific: mathematical abilities, artistic abilities, athletic abilities, creative abilities, intellectual abilities, choreographic ways obnosti etc.
The second stage is a stage of active study of the pedagogical potential of the society, significant for the development of the social abilities of the individual. Its main difference from the early stage is the active role of the student in the process of cognition of the environment, activities and communication.
The organizer and enlightenment principle prevails in the activity of the specialist, the essence of which is to involve the student in the process of cognition, study of intelligence, individual characteristics of specialists of various social institutions, social activity, level of their social abilities.
Development of activity in cognition is achieved by including the student in the preparation of diagnostic procedures, developing tools, conducting explanatory and educational activities on the nature and content of diagnostic tools, the procedure for using them, as well as the process of diagnosing a person and analyzing the data. As a result, students acquire skills in working with diagnostic tools and the ability to study the pedagogical potential of the society, find in it significant components for the development of their own social abilities, better recognize their own potential, find untapped resources and opportunities, as well as problem areas for their own development.
The third stage - the stage of active development of the social abilities of the individual includes the process of implementing the pedagogical potential of the society in resolving the problems of the student's personality. To stimulate the process of realization of the pedagogical potential in the development of the social abilities of the individual, students are included in thematic classes on understanding the essence of social abilities, in socially meaningful activities: preparing for participation in the Olympiad; participation in the competition of student or student works; participation in the editorial board of the school; the organization of various actions held among veterans, migrants; Involvement in volunteer activities to assist in difficult social situations; Participation in sports competitions, etc. During these activities, students develop the ability to work together, develop skills and skills of collective action.
The fourth stage - the stage of improving the social abilities of the individual. This is the stage of increasing the indices of a person's social activity by abandoning traditional methods and improving their own experience: skillfully analyzing it and using the means, forms and methods of realizing the goals of activity that are most effective under the given conditions and applied to one's own capabilities. For example, the study of the conditions for improving the social abilities of primary school students revealed that the process of the formation of social abilities is particularly effective when students perform joint study assignments, in the situation of cooperation on the part of teachers and students. At the same time, the following picture is observed: the more actively the student is taken for the performance of collective tasks, the more active attention he requires from other students and the teacher to his activity, the higher the success of joint activity. The learner starts to show skills and abilities of a higher level, allows less erroneous actions and responds more flexibly to problems of interaction with his peers, i.e. there are signs of improving social abilities. At the same time, the process of improvement is much more successful for those students who are actively involved in joint activities with knowledge of their social resources and pay attention to the level of realization of their own social opportunities compared to other participants in the activity. They have creativity, and therefore improve their social abilities.
The fifth stage - the stage of assessing the effectiveness of the process of development of social abilities of the individual. Evaluation of the effectiveness of any process of personal development by the means of the society is an integral part of the specialist's activity in the socio-pedagogical approach to its organization. The main signs of the emergence of the social abilities of the individual can be: the appearance of the learner's skills and abilities to establish interaction with other people for the purpose of training; the ability to help others learn; the ability to gain authority among others; the ability to use the pedagogical potential of others; the ability to acquire new skills and communication skills; availability of skills and abilities to acquire new social ties; the ability to understand other people.
In this subparagraph, we present the tools for the final assessment of the level of development of social abilities (see Appendices 1, 3).
Thus, the development (recovery) of the pedagogical potential of the society can be carried out both at the level of an individual, primarily his social needs or social abilities, as well as social values, and at the intra-level level in the form of the development of the pedagogical potential of social activity or social relations . The development of the pedagogical potential of the society can also be at the level of the development of the pedagogical potential of one or several social institutions. Thus, the development of the pedagogical potential of each individual element of the society or several of them allows us to affirm the fact that the pedagogical potential of the society as a whole is thereby being developed.
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