Developing Creativity in an Educational Environment
Main factors of creativity development
The problem of the development of creativity is among the intensively researched and often discussed. The following issues are of fundamental importance for society and, in particular for education, as a public institution called to professionally solve development problems:
- how much the level of creativity is determined by the genotype
- To what extent is creativity subject to development under the influence of environmental factors
- what is the age dynamics of creativity development
- whether there are individual characteristics of the development of creativity and what is their typology;
- which of the environmental factors are most effective in terms of developing creativity;
- what influence on the development of creativity is provided by training.
The development of creativity we understand as a process that continues throughout the life of the individual. Undoubtedly, it is a derivative of biological and sociocultural determinants, it includes consistent, progressive, irreversible quantitative and qualitative changes in the psyche. In this case, of course, there are moments of regression.
The problem of the effect of genotype on the development of creativity - an independent task, specially studied in many studies psychogenetic (SD Biryukov, E. L. Grigorenko, BI Kochubei R. Nichols et al.). The results of studies show that the contribution of the genotype to the determination of individual differences in the level of development of divergent thinking is relatively small. According to R. Nichols, summarizing the results of twin 10 divergent thinking diagnostic studies, the average correlation between monozygotic twins is equal to 0.61, and between dizygotic - 0.50. Similar results have come in their studies SD Biryukov VN Druzhinin, E. L. Grigorenko, BI Kochubei and others. Thus, the hypothesis of a high degree of heritability of individual differences in creativity, in modern works not is confirmed.
In the group of environmental factors, researchers, traditionally, have paid special attention to the social microenvironment. First of all, the influence of family relations. As E. Aliyeva notes, most experts identify the following parameters in the analysis of family relations:
1. Harmoniousness/non-harmony of relations between parents, and also between parents and children.
2. Creative/uncreative personality of the parent as a model of imitation and subject of identification.
3. Community of intellectual interests of family members or lack thereof.
4. Expectations of parents in relation to the child: expectation of achievements or independence.
The resulting data is often contradictory. For example, VN Druzhinin writes that if the family is cultivated by the regulation of behavior, the same requirements are imposed on all children, there are harmonious relations between family members, this leads to a low level of creativity of children. D. Manfield, R. Albert, M. Runco found positive correlations between the inharmonious, emotional relations in the family, the psychotic nature of the parents and the high creativity of the children. R. Sternberg, by contrast, points out the need for harmonious relations for the development of creativity.
In this regard, VN Druzhinin expresses the hypothesis that a greater range of acceptable behavioral manifestations (including emotional ones), less unambiguous requirements do not contribute to the early formation of rigid social stereotypes and favor the development of creativity. Thus, the creative personality looks psychologically unstable. Requirements for achieving success through obedience do not contribute to the development of independence and, as a result, creativity.
Supplement these, empirically obtained facts and judgments, the results of analysis of biographies of outstanding creators. K. Berry conducted a comparative study of the characteristics of family education of Nobel laureates in science and literature. The researcher noted that almost all laureates come from families of intellectuals and businessmen, among them there are practically no representatives of the lower strata of society. Most of them were born and grew up in large cities (capitals and megacities). From the point of view we are considering, it is particularly interesting that the situation in the families of the laureate scientists was more stable than in the families of the literary laureates.
In their interviews, laureates-scientists emphasized that they had a happy childhood, they early started a scientific career, which, as a rule, proceeded without significant disruptions. However, history knows other examples, a significant number of people who have achieved great success in science in childhood and adolescence have experienced many losses and shocks (Kepler, I. Newton, M. Faraday, DI Mendeleev, and others). Probably, this should be assessed as an exception to the rule, for most of today's outstanding scientists, as shown by the research of K. Berry, this is uncharacteristic. On the contrary, the tragic events in the life of writers of the Nobel Prize laureates are typical. Among laureates-writers, K. Berry counted up to 30% of those who lost one of their parents in childhood or survived the ruin of a family. VN Druzhinin writes about this: "Perhaps the trauma associated with the loss of loved ones in childhood, and is that unhealing wound that causes the writer through his personal drama to disclose in the word the drama of human existence."
Thus, it can be concluded that a stable, relaxed atmosphere in families most often contributes to the development of talents manifested in the scientific field. Such a development is very likely for those who demonstrate creativity in the practical sphere (politics, management, entrepreneurship, military science, etc.). Curious data on the practical giftedness obtained in the studies of ethologists (J. Palmer, W. McCone, D. Kirby, T. Tornberg). They testify that people in childhood, surrounded by a large parental care, are adapted to a high position in society in adulthood. They are more communicative, responsible, have good self-control and low impulsiveness. In other words, their social intelligence is high. In contrast, a childhood deprived of care and full of family conflicts generates people predisposed to low status. Such people are characterized by low sociality, irresponsibility, poor self-control, high impulsiveness (J. Palmer, V. McCone, D. Kirby, T. Tornberg). In this regard, a special sound is acquired by the data obtained by C. Berry when studying biographies of Nobel laureates of writers, that for them the most "favorable" there is an unstable microenvironment, family upheavals, heavy experiences. Not only writers, but with respect to art-gifted people in general, one can often speak of low sociality, irresponsibility, poor self-control, high impulsiveness.
Along with the characteristics of the family environment, among the most important factors in the development of creativity, most researchers note the presence in the immediate environment of the child "a sample of creative behavior." For the development of creative abilities, it is not so much the special organized activity, stable or unstable micro- or macroenvironment, as an adult creative person with whom the child could identify himself is important. However, the search for an answer to the question of who can become such a model is fraught with a number of difficulties. VN Druzhinin insists that it can not be one of the parents, it should be an "ideal hero", possessing creative features. Probably, this problem should be considered through the prism of empirical studies of the specificity of "cultural imprinting".
As is known, the term imprinting The Nobel laureate, the Austrian ethologist Konrad Lorenz, introduced the scientific use. Watching the nestlings of geese and ducks, he discovered the effect of a special fixation of any moving object (man, dog, cat, etc.) by chicks newly hatched from eggs. Later, the chicks begin to follow this object, referring to it as a mother. The term cultural imprinting is conditional, it presupposes a similar imprint of a person by cultural models in the process of education. It is a question of special sensitive periods of childhood, when people form group loyalty, and thus they become very resistant to the formation of alternative fidelity in later life. Cultural imprinting does not involve violence. It requires only a minimal impact of the initiating stimulus during the sensitive period. By absorbing certain truths or patterns of behavior at an early age, people often remain their followers for many years.
Since creativity is primarily a result of environmental influences, the issue of the action of macro-environment factors, such as cultural traditions, political order, ethno-cultural preferences, etc., is of particular interest. By virtue of their fundamental lack of control over the experimenter, macro-mediated factors rarely became the subject of special studies. However, a number of researchers, based on their empirical research, note that a socially and politically unstable environment is most favorable for the development of creativity (D. Simonton).
Family environment where, on the one hand, there is attention to the child, and on the other - where various uncoordinated requirements are presented to him, where external control over behavior is small, where creative members of the family are encouraged and non-stereotyped behavior is encouraged, leads to the development of creativity in child.
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