Developmental learning, its functions, structure and mechanisms
What is learning development
The concept of developmental learning is the leading in the modern didactic concept. Developmental learning is the most important tool for realizing the main goal of any education and achieving its main result - the person's identity as the bearer of culture, creator, professional, citizen, parent. This training, which acquires a complex (ideally - a system) of knowledge about the world and the person himself, which promotes (ideally - provides) the development of motivation, value orientations, various abilities, moral and civic qualities of the person.
In learning, there is always, in one way or another, the processes of mastering knowledge, development and upbringing. But traditionally until the last decades the prevalent role in the organization of the learning process was played by the mastery of knowledge, and development and upbringing was supposed to go by itself and be a natural result of acquiring knowledge and skills to use this knowledge. However, if these processes occur spontaneously, if the learning system does not ensure the functioning of development mechanisms, if the teacher does not regulate these mechanisms, then the results obtained are often inefficient in terms of development, not providing sufficient preparation for subsequent training and creative activity.
In the late 1950's - early 1960's. in the USSR, a new system of primary education (1-4 grades), authored by a follower of LS Vygotsky, the famous psychologist L. V. Zankov. With a group of associates, he developed a system of developmental education for junior schoolchildren, based on the following principles:
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- the leading role of theoretical knowledge;
- learning at a high level of difficulty (in fact, it was about the degree of difficulty available to students);
- advancement in the study of the material at a rapid pace (protest against multiple repetitive repetition for the sake of memorization);
- the child's realization of the learning process (now we call this process a reflection);
- inclusion in the learning process not only rational, but also emotional sphere;
- problematization of content;
- variability and an individual approach.
Predominantly, the learning logic remained inductive as the most accessible for younger students.
A little later, another system of developmental training was born. Its authors are prominent scientists-psychologists DB Elkonin and VV Davydov. All training was built on the basis of the idea of the leading role of theoretical generalization and subsequent deduction with access to specific subject teaching. Children, for example, first acquired the concepts of "distance", "more", "less", "add", "take away" etc., and then learned to read, write, count. The emphasis was on the development of abstract thinking and generalized approaches.
Both systems have paved the way for developing learning at all levels of our educational system, and the positions put forward by their creators, as we now begin to understand, were even more significant in the middle and higher schools (especially in the Elkonin and V. Davydov), where the field for theoretical abstractions and generalizations, for building a system of teaching on a deductive basis, is much more prepared than in the junior classes of a general school.
The analysis showed that the concept of developmental learning and the associated characteristics of methods and systems of teaching have a wider meaning than the authors mentioned above. We call training in such a development, in which mental neoplasms - abilities, direction, attitude to different facets of reality, positive traits of character, etc., as well as readiness for activity and self-improvement - are not an incidental, but the main components and the most significant result. Knowledge in the system of developmental learning is not the ultimate goal of learning, but a means, a material for the development of students.
From this point of view, all modern methods and technologies and, in general, learning systems should be developing, although, of course, the developing potential of different methods and systems of training is not the same, and each method or system has its own advantages and limitations. In order to identify, evaluate and reasonably use the developing potential of various methods and systems, we first clarify the conditions for developing learning, and then we will trace the possibilities and ways of using them in traditional and new methods, technologies and training systems.
It is well known that the development of any quality of man in general, and in particular a person socializing, i.e. developing personality, occurs in activities that require these qualities (SL Rubinstein, AN Leontiev).
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Activities in psychology and pedagogy are defined as a purposeful and internally motivated system of actions, during which a person decides a series of tasks, the solution of which leads to the achievement of goals, enters into relations with other people, groups, components of the external environment and forms on this basis his own attitude to the values, objects of the external world, to oneself.
A person develops in communication with other people, colleagues, fellow practitioners, teachers. Then imitation, suggestion, empathy, desire, and then the ability to cooperate, help, promote. There is a complete and partial coincidence of views or, on the contrary, a desire to argue, to convince opponents of their rightness. A person is aware of his opportunities, advantages and disadvantages, he learns self-esteem, self-regulation, self-correction. We need only remember that cultivation of "self", the independence of thought and activity, is a difficult and time-consuming process. It occurs through with - joint activities with the teacher, partner, mentor both in the academic work and outside it - in free and selective communication.
In all spheres (study, work, social activity, recreation and pursuing interests), development, according to the theory of the outstanding United States psychologist LS Vygotsky, as already noted, takes place in the the zone of proximal development , evolutionarily. It is important for a teacher to ensure this development, while working all the time in the "zone of proximal development" pupils, which each of them has its own. This is very difficult, given that, firstly, collective forms of education (lessons, lectures, seminars) clearly prevail for us, and secondly, it is sometimes difficult for the subject educator to determine the "zone of proximal development" students, even working with them in a small group or individually. Acting in this zone, the teacher relies on the already formed, but at times insufficiently mastered, strong knowledge, skills, skills, relationships, contributes to their awareness and "sprouting" in person.
A common landmark, a specific sign of the nearest development zone is the responsiveness of students to the assistance provided by the teacher, other students. Assistance is provided when difficulties arise. And if they do not arise? Then, most likely, the trainee (student, listener, student) is in the "current development zone", where he already owns both the material, and the ways of interpreting and transforming it, and copes without difficulty with the solution of problems. But in this case, there is no developmental effect, although the consolidation, the rooting of what has been accomplished, achieved can occur.
If a student experiencing difficulties finds himself insensitive to help, does not perceive it as an incentive to productive activity, then the task proposed to him is somewhere outside his "zone of proximal development". This zone can be conditionally called the zone of perspective, future development, to which the trainee has not yet reached. Here, the effect of the activity can be negative and even harmful, for the learner can lose faith in his abilities, lose his taste for further studies and searches.
So, developmental learning always occurs in the "near development zone" and carried out in activities and communication (which some psychologists consider a special type of activity). Here, too, is the working position of a teacher who is always ready to regulate, stimulate and provide assistance.
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