Diagnostic-prognostic basis for inclusion of the game in the educational process
The personal approach, underlying the organization of the modern educational process, assumes the initial orientation of teachers in the properties and qualities of the individual, which are already represented in the preschool child, and even more so - in the younger schoolboy. The primary school teacher takes care of the development, education and upbringing of the child when, through imitation and under the influence of others, he has already acquired quite a few skills, aspirations, desires, when these new properties, which make up the top layer of the personality, obscure the underlying ones. And with such a mixture of heterogeneous properties the teacher must act (PF Kapterev).
Therefore, the starting point in the work of both each and all students of the class should be first and foremost the study of this "mixing of dissimilar properties" with the help of different methods and forms of diagnosis, which will allow the teacher to obtain some preliminary information, important for planning further professional activity. In the process of diagnosis, along with important data on the achievements and peculiarities of the psychophysical development of children, significant materials can be collected, indicating the need for some intervention in this development and its correction. It is only natural that the teacher will try to plan the solution of such problems with support both for specific and non-specific ones - gaming methods of pedagogical work, especially when it comes to children who have only crossed the school threshold. In connection with this, it is not only expedient, but also extremely necessary, to identify students in the program of psychological and pedagogical study of students along with others and tasks of analyzing their gaming needs, interests and preferences.
Such a study can be conducted, for example, in the form of free conversation with the student or with a group of students. Sincere interest, which the adult demonstrates to the content of the conversation, his desire to get the maximum full, detailed answers to questions are important conditions for its effectiveness. Those children who for some reason do not want to take part in the conversation should not be forced to respond - it is better to wait and choose a more suitable case when they can tell about their gaming interests and preferences with great desire and desire. Canto conversations can make the following questions:
Do you like to play? What games do you play?
Which of them do you like more than others? Why?
What kind of games do you not like? Why?
Can you come up with a game yourself?
How do you like to play, alone or with other children? Why?
With whom do you like to play more, with boys or girls, with older or younger children? Why?
Do you like to play with toys? Which of them do you play most often?
Where do you like to play - at school, at home, in the yard?
How often do you play? Would you like to play more often? and so on
The study of gaming interests and preferences of junior schoolchildren in this way revealed, for example, that for most children 7-10 years old, love of mobile games is characteristic. What do you like most about games? pupils of the 1st-2nd grades answered: "Cats-mice", "Salka", "Geese-swans", "Third superfluous", "The sea is worried" and others. Students of the Sh-class called games "hide-and-seek", "football", "in war", "in Indians", games of attention type "freeze", i.e. also mobile, but with a more pronounced role accent. With the question Why do you like this game? the criterion of physical activity came first: "You can run around". Next came such characteristics as "funny", "funny", "funny", "fast", "from her (games) - good mood", "joyful", "interesting", "fascinating" , "useful", "you need to know a lot", "need the mind", "cunning and dexterous", "play a lot of children", "you need to help out", "the team wins" & " and so on
The students' answers during the conversation, as well as observations of free children's games during the school day, can be supplemented with data obtained from conversations with the parents of the students or from their questionnaires by the organization of children's games in the family.
The subsequent careful analysis of the collected material will help the teacher, on the one hand, to identify both the general and the individual game queries pupils of the class and realize the real place of play in the mode of their life activity, and on the other - determine their own position regarding the inclusion of the game in the educational process. However, it should be remembered that the gaming interests and preferences of children do not remain something frozen, defined once and for all; on the contrary, they change quite often. Therefore, the study of gaming preferences of students should be conducted regularly enough so that in time to make adjustments to the programs that the teacher uses.
In addition, in the game, children usually discover a wide variety of game qualities, directly related to the characteristics of their temperament and character, the conditions of upbringing, etc. Therefore, observation of children's behavior in the process of independent games (on a break, on a school lot, etc.) allows the teacher to determine to which player type each of them applies.
So, the ideal partner in games is the so-called "good-natured player" . This is a smart, thoughtful, attentive, calmly related to everything a child. Starting to play, he is addicted to the game and given it entirely, childishly directly, at ease. In his behavior, there are practically no selfish manifestations, he is compliant and can subordinate his interests to the interests of the children's group. In the game, such a child is included with caution, not hurrying to show himself actively and immediately. He is not indifferent, calmly reacts to the comrades' jokes or does not pay any attention to them at all; he is also calmly attuned to the adult.
There are good types of players like "talent players", " organizers ", leaders For example, true talent - this is usually a good friend, but he prefers to be a leader and figure in the central roles. He is usually quite active and more developed than other children. At the same time, there is a certain capriciousness, manners, instability of desires and a certain nervousness in his behavior. The self-organized organizer is also a good gaming partner - initiative, playful, loves to follow all the rules, but somewhat ambitious. Such a child has a special social giftedness; the ability to find an approach to each of the players and combine them. In the process of the game, he, organizing children, willingly and effectively helps the leader, but can independently lead the game. Finally, real leader Is a player with
especially developed will and heightened sense of legitimacy, extremely proactive, active and persevering. He is constantly concerned about common interests, he is proud of his role in the game and is also able to effectively help an adult when conducting it.
But in children's games there are also "imaginary talents", "fools", "unsuccessful wits", "closed ducks", "confusing players", "imitators", "rebellious souls", , relaxed players "," hypocritical players "," upstarts "," bouncers "," cunning leaders "," strongman leaders " and other types of players. Already their definitions to some extent testify to those elements of spontaneity, unplanned nature, which they can bring into the game. So, " imaginary talent" is rather selfish, capricious, touchy and suspicious. The game is prone to disputes, often violates the rules. Confused player wants to participate in the game and at the same time is afraid. He is weak, irresolute, lacks initiative, is not confident in his abilities, is afraid of looking ridiculous, does not want any attention to be paid to him. The ironic player refers to games that are downward, disdainful. Because of his inherent ambition, he usually either does not participate at all in the game, or in every way demonstrates his condescending attitude towards her, makes comments to his comrades, without warning leaves the game. These and other types of players the teacher should be able to determine and with their account to build their own tactics of the game impact, while simultaneously carrying out a certain correction of negative types of children's game behavior.
However, it should be taken into account that some initial diagnostic information can be partially rethought in view of constantly arriving pedagogically significant information. And therefore, once used, the diagnostic tools should not disappear from the arsenal of the teacher, continuing to serve as a necessary condition and regulator of the correctional-educational process.
It is quite appropriate for the teacher to think over and choose any form of fixing the results of diagnosis and dynamic observation for the development of students in the process of using the means of game influence. This can be a kind of diary of pedagogical observations, and individual cards of students and something else, but in any form of analysis and evaluation, not only are the gaming interests and needs of the students subject, but also their response to the use of specific gaming methods and forms of pedagogical influence.
Thus, the study of spontaneously existing game forms of activity and independent children's games is the most important prerequisite for expanding their use in elementary school, designing directed game programs and developing (modeling) new games. Different methods and forms of pedagogical diagnostics serve as a natural and organic basis, on the one hand, for elucidating game requests and features of the game behavior of students, and on the other hand for the competent definition of the role and place of play as a pedagogical tool in working with them. The results of diagnosing and correlating them with the general and particular tasks of pedagogical work with each student and class as a whole help the teacher to correctly predict the strategy and tactics of including children's play in the primary school educational process.
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