Driving forces and the logic of the educational process
Education is seen in pedagogy as a dialectical process. Describing the process of education, A. S. Makarenko stressed that with the whole complex world of reality, the child enters an infinite number of relationships. This circumstance can not be ignored in the real educational process. It informs him of flexibility, mobility, dynamism, variability. No system of educational means can be recommended as a constant, because the child himself changes, entering into new systems of social relations and relations, social functions of the educational process, demands for the younger generation grow and become more complicated.
In accordance with the dialectical approach to the study of developing and changing phenomena by the driving forces of upbringing and self-education, where the second is a consequence and result from the first, there are contradictions.
Contradiction - is a clash in a conflict of opposite principles. However, they only determine the content and direction of development when favorable external conditions are created for their manifestation. Folding and changing under the influence of external circumstances, internal contradictions cause the transition of a person to a higher level of its development.
Scientifically substantiated resolution of objective and timely awareness and elimination of subjective contradictions will ensure the progressive movement of the educational process from solving some tasks to others, more complex and responsible.
One of the main sources of human development as a person is the contradiction between the needs and ways (conditions) of their satisfaction in society. If the need of a schoolboy is satisfied by the appropriate object or action and in the required amount, the contradiction is removed in the early stages. Practically it happens that the need is not satisfied immediately and not fully. In this situation, a contradiction arises that, in turn, generates tension.
As a society can not fully meet all the needs of the individual, so the person never completely meets the requirements of society. Relationships person & society rather complex, which, on the one hand, can help the individual to reveal his life forces and society to develop, and on the other hand, can be destructive for both the individual and the society.
Education of the individual must meet the existing social requirements and be aimed at helping the individual to find his place in the society. Find your place in the society is understood not as an adaptation to the society, but as an active interaction, the result of which is the development of the individual and society.
Among the internal contradictions is the contradiction between the student's claims and his capabilities. This contradiction can be expressed openly in behavior: he promised - did not fulfill, got down to business - did not finish it. But it can also be hidden - then in the educational process there is a conflict situation.
The most common internal contradiction of the objective nature, which determines the movement of the educational process, is the inconsistency of the real opportunities that are raised to those requirements that are imposed on them by society: schools, teachers.
If the requirements are too high or, conversely, they are underestimated, they do not become sources of movement for schoolchildren, and therefore, of the entire educational system for the ultimate goal. Only the tasks that are in the zone of the nearest development of children and corresponding to their assessments of the significance of the perceived cause interest and the need for their solution. The student thus has an aspiration to understand, determine his attitude to these requirements. That is why it is necessary to design close, medium and long-term prospects for the development of the collective and individual pupils, turn them into specific educational tasks and ensure the adoption by the children themselves.
The external contradiction is manifested in the discrepancy, the discrepancy between the objectively existing norms and the behavior of the surrounding people. It is not uncommon for a schoolchild to witness such actions by peers and adults who are at variance with social norms. One of the external contradictions of the educational process is the contradiction between the external requirements and the behavior of the student himself. A small schoolboy, for example, is required not to run during the change but the corridor. However, he is not yet ready to fulfill this requirement and behaves as before.
In recent years, in connection with the democratization of education, the main internal contradiction of the educational process and the development of the personality in childhood has emerged. This discrepancy between the active-activity nature of the child and the socio-pedagogical conditions of his life. The main contradiction is concretized by a number of secondary contradictions:
- between the public interest and the interests of the individual;
- between the team and the person;
- between the complex phenomena of social life and the lack of children's experience for their understanding;
- between the rapidly growing information flow and the possibilities of the educational process, etc.
The following are subjective contradictions:
- between the integrity of the individual and the functional approach to its formation, one-sidedness of the educational process;
- between the individual creative process of becoming an individual and the mass-reproductive nature of the organization of the pedagogical process;
- between the defining value of the activity in the development of the personality and the attitudes mainly on verbal education;
- between the increasing role of humanitarian subjects in the civil formation of man and the trend towards the technocratization of the pedagogical process, etc.
Any contradiction in one way or another must be resolved, or it exists until it exhausts itself. The need is met, the contradiction is lifted. Overcoming the contradiction, the personality rises to a higher stage of its development, acquires a new quality, a willingness to solve more complex problems, to master more sophisticated ways of activity and behavior. Conversely, the movement of the personality is suspended if the contradiction continues to exist, fading and exacerbating, to the disappearance of the causes that generate it. Satisfied need creates a new need, of a higher order. One contradiction is replaced by another, and development continues.
The art of education in this case is to create pedagogical situations to incite students to internal contradictions and thus stimulate their activity in various activities. The content and hierarchy of contradictions can be modeled in the pedagogical process, which will contribute to greater flexibility in managing the upbringing process and the full realization of its goals.
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