Dynamics of multicultural educational process, Logic...

The dynamics of the multicultural educational process

The logic of the multicultural educational process.

From the point of view of a number of authors, the development of the theory of multicultural education rests on the inadequacy of the developed methodology, which satisfactorily explains the logic of the multicultural educational process. The multicultural education, in relation to which a large number of different methods have been developed in the world, does not always give a reliable educational result in the form of 1) the intercultural competence of students as a willingness and ability to enter into negotiations with representatives of all cultures of modern society, come to mutually enriching solutions and 2) multicultural the world outlook of students as a perception of cultural diversity as a natural social norm and personal value, and images of culture and themselves - as a result of creative intercultural mutual enrichment. This proves the need to find and develop theoretical models of the basic educational process of poly culture education, which allow to conduct reliable diagnostics of this process, find gaps, understand the directions of their correction and build a more effective education.

The model of the stages of the multicultural educational process is presented in the works of J. Bess. Here is a brief description of this model.

The first stage - contributive - the introduction of information about the elements of cultures of students - ethnic minorities in the content of education and training through mentioning famous representatives of different cultures, presentations of folk crafts, music, etc. on the occasion of the celebration of significant dates in the calendar of events of the school or the calendar of the national minority. For example, the organization of multinational days with the use of folk songs, culinary presentations, the design of thematic shields depicting historical characters and events, outstanding examples of artistic creativity and geographical features of different cultures.

The second stage - additive - adding to the content of education additional elective courses on cultural diversity or adding separate topics and terms to existing curricula for humanitarian disciplines; while the main content of the subjects of the basic curriculum remains unchanged.

The third ethane - transformational - reformat most of the curriculum from a polycultural perspective, when facts and phenomena are viewed not only from the Eurocentric point of view, but also from other cultural traditions. Students acquire the experience of studying concepts, themes and problems in different disciplines from the point of view of different cultures, not counting that the point of view of the cultural majority is the only correct one. It's not about considering all academic topics from the point of view of different cultures, but about choosing topics that are relevant for a particular school, class, territory, which can help students develop the skills and empathy, empathy, tolerance and respect , independence and critical attitude to the one-dimensional view of objects and phenomena.

The fourth stage is the social activity organization of activities that help students make decisions and fulfill civic duty in situations related to injustice and discrimination in the field of intercultural relations. Supporting the values ​​of cultural diversity in its educational institution, microdistrict, republic, the country causes a lot of social problems. At this stage, students are involved in interaction with each other, with teachers, parents, representatives of the public to address these problems. For example, students can collect factual material on the problem of the manifestation of domestic xenophobia, carry out activities aimed at closer acquaintance with this topic (role games, discussions on problems, etc.), make a decision (for example, write a letter to the editor of a regional newspaper) P. Minority students and representatives of the majority are given opportunities for active participation in the life of society so that they can manage their own destiny independently: for example, by forming an ability to critically analyze the facts of discrimination and search for possible alternative actions.

Each stage of this model, being fundamentally new in the practice of the activity of a separate educational institution, is based on the previous ones and describes the logic of the basic process of multicultural education. Realization of the first stage in the practice of United States education does not cause any special problems. Indeed, most educational institutions hold national holidays, organize concerts of folklore ensembles, make exhibitions of decorative and applied works of students in ethnic style, etc. In the process of implementing the first step, the level of self-esteem of students who are members of national minorities is increasing, they and their families are involved in the school life. Most students learn with interest that there are representatives of minorities around, but it is possible to strengthen stereotypes existing in relation to minority cultures if majority students perceive other cultures superficially or as "exotic", without taking into account the living contemporary context of culture minorities.

The second stage, traditionally implemented through the national-regional component of the content of education, is also quite common. However, its implementation raises a number of problems: teachers are sorry to waste the "precious" time lessons on the issues of the cultures of the peoples of the region, instead of preparing students for the passing of the USE; teachers often have to look for additional material other than those available in methodological aids, etc.

However, the first two stages are not a multicultural education. At these stages, there is a predominance of one-cultural education over a multicultural one, there is a statement of the division into "civilized" culture and obsolete culture that persists in "backward families"; individual students or residents of the surrounding society. Realization of these stages is expedient if they are successive steps in preparation for the realization of a full-fledged gender and cultural education.

The third and fourth stages form a multidimensional world outlook for children and young people, the recognition of the equal value of any culture as a source of development of the all-United States and world culture, the accents are made not only on the common (national), but original, in different cultures. Teachers at these stages take the position of recognizing the equality and equivalence of different value systems - ethnic, religious, age, etc. Therefore, teachers, together with students, study material on cultural diversity, the contribution of many cultures to the world, the difference in assessments of facts and phenomena by representatives of different cultures and so on.

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