Economic education of junior schoolchildren
Economic education is aimed at developing people's qualities such as thrift, diligence, discipline, efficiency, as well as feelings of collectivism, the need for practical participation in economic activity, enterprise, conscious, creative attitude to work, reasonable personal needs. At the same time, economic education is not identical to labor education, since it is not limited to the sphere of labor activity, but penetrates into various spheres of non-productive activity: the sphere of consumption, exchange and distribution (buying items in the store, handling things, relationships about property and money, etc. .).
The importance of economic education for children of this age is explained by the following. The main categories of the economy as science - limited resources and the satisfaction of diverse needs - inevitably actualize the skills of choice, which are generalized, transferred to other areas of activity. In addition, psychologists confirmed that the age of 5-8 years is sensitive to assign economic models of behavior: rational, acquisitive, consumer, contractual, etc.
The result of economic education implies the formed economically significant qualities of a person, value orientations, positive motives, reflected in the process of practical activity, teaching, playing when choosing ways to achieve the goals. In addition, there are a number of skills, economic interests, needs.
An economically conscious attitude to work and its results should be brought up; to develop aspirations to increase labor incomes, to improve the quality of life; focus on the rationalization of labor and increase its socio-economic efficiency; promote moral choice in situations related to economic activity.
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Economically significant personal qualities traditionally include diligence, efficiency, thrift, prudence, economy and enterprise as the most common. Along with positive economically significant qualities, negative ones are also distinguished: stinginess, extravagance, selfishness, dependency, and self-pity. Some researchers add to the abovementioned a number of other qualities that regulate business and personal relations in the economic sphere of people's lives and at the same time are based on moral criteria accepted in society: honesty, initiative, enthusiasm, reliability, responsibility, independence, sociability, economy, enterprise, prudence , efficiency, perseverance. The system of such qualities is called moral and economic, they are conditioned by the needs of society in a harmonious combination of pragmatic and ethical bases of economic activity.
The so-called qualities of an entrepreneur are singled out, which, in addition to the above, include: readiness for risk, flexibility, self-confidence, friendly and respectful attitude towards people, etc., and the ability to establish social and business connections, aspiration to maximum efficiency, creativity, etc.
By diligence is understood the form of expression by the person of the positive relation to work. It manifests itself in the desire to work conscientiously and passes into the sphere of awareness of the social and moral value of labor, a deep understanding of its necessity.
Entrepreneurship is seen as a manifestation of labor, social activity, expressed in ingenuity, ingenuity, initiative, practicality, independence of decision-making and responsibility for their implementation, development of ideas that provide profit or benefit.>
Deliberation is defined as the totality of creative, performing and organizational qualities, through which the individual optimally self-fulfills himself in work.
Computability involves the rational allocation, evaluation and use of various types of resources,
identifying the reserves for the implementation of the intended goal of the activity.
Thrift - the quality of the individual, manifested in the desire to preserve the products of labor and natural resources, to extend their life.
Economy - the quality of the individual, ensuring the rational use of all types of resources with benefit and benefit, reducing costs, costs, costs, reducing losses. The economy is manifested in the use of resource-saving technologies, efficient management of the economy, high labor organization.
There are certain patterns of economic education of a junior schoolboy. The first economic concepts that a small child begins to operate in addition to the concept of "money", it's "property", "catch". By the time of admission to school, a United States child has over 25 economic concepts in the active vocabulary, which, in addition to those mentioned, are mainly related to work and its processes. These are different subjects and results of labor, materials, goods. Children are familiar with words such as price & quot ;, cost & quot ;. Understandable for children and operations with them: buying, selling, more expensive, cheaper, won-lost, exchanged, etc.
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In elementary school, the child has first ideas about the interdependence of economic categories. Children are beginning to realize the relationship between invested labor and wages, between education and a prestigious profession, and the like.
The attitude towards property changes significantly with the child's age. To explain the views of children about property, about the justice of punishment for theft, foreign researchers often use the theory of moral development of L. Kolberg. Children 7-8 years, in accordance with this theory, express a physical rather than a psychological attitude to things. It is believed that the form of possession and the pleasure of personal possession of a thing are less significant than satisfying their desire to receive this thing, so in terms of punishment, 7-8-year-olds are limited to simply taking away a thing and returning it to the owner. In 9-10 years the child realizes the property right, which puts above someone else's interest. Therefore, he has an idea of a more severe punishment for theft.
At the same time, psychologists have proved that it is during this period that the child takes on a certain psychological orientation for the future ("leadership", "greed", "individualism", etc.). Depending on what ethical orientation the child's chosen psychological image will have, the type of his economic behavior will be determined later.
By the beginning of school age, children have a significant interest in the phenomena of socio-economic reality, to participate in economic activity. In 6-7 years the child is full of labor enthusiasm, especially it is attracted by joint work in the family. The main forms of participation of children of this age in economic activity: the economic and labor activity of children in the family; personal experience of the treatment of children with money; practical participation of children in economic activities for self-made money.
The family is the community in which the child first becomes a participant in the economic life, which is primarily due to the purchase of products and things; caring for pets and younger children; planning and organizing their work; the performance of permanent household assignments, etc. In addition, children participate to a different extent in the distribution of the family budget, accustom themselves to self-regulation of needs, are aware of the availability of property, and the sources of family income. The family has a systematic, purposeful impact on children; it forms (or does not form!) A lifelong attitude to the personal and public domain, respect for work in all its manifestations, conscientiousness in economic and everyday socially useful works. The content of economic education in the family includes the rational organization of household activities, careful treatment of food, things, time, participation in the distribution of funds, the stimulation of reasonable needs, the development of mutual assistance.
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