Education of a healthy child, The concept of health and its...

Raising a healthy child

The concept of health and its components

In its actuality, the problem of human health is considered one of the most important and complex in modern science. Ambiguity of the concept is revealed in the works of a number of scientists. German philosopher Arthur Schopenhauer quite clearly defined the place of health in human life: "In general, 9/10 of our happiness is based on health. With him, everything becomes a source of enjoyment, whereas without him, absolutely no external good can bring pleasure, even subjective benefits: the qualities of the mind, soul, temperament in a morbid state weaken and freeze. "

There are many definitions of the phenomenon of "health". The most general definition formulated in the preamble of the Charter of the World Health Organization (WHO) in 1948: "Health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being, and not just the absence of disease or infirmity." WHO experts in the 80s of the XX century determined that human health is 15-20% determined by genetic factors, 20-25% depends on the state of the environment, 10-15% on medical support and 50-55% - from the way of life.

The discussion about the essence of human health has always been acute, medics, specialists in the field of physical culture and sports, psychologists and psychiatrists, teachers, philosophers take part in it. Most researchers in this area emphasize that human health can not be reduced to merely stating the absence of disease, malaise and discomfort. Health also characterizes the state that allows a person to lead a life that is natural in his freedom, to fully fulfill his functions, first of all labor, to lead a healthy lifestyle; to experience mental, physical and social well-being.

Whatever national health measures are being taken in a given country, they may not be effective. The fact is that without a person's knowledge of the modern concept of health, he will not be able to lead a "productive way of life". Therefore, along with ensuring the socio-psychological aspect of the health of the population, it is necessary to increase the role of personal responsibility of each person for their health, to develop a conscious responsibility.

The modern view of health is formulated in the generally accepted definition of WHO: Health - is the dynamic state of the mental, physical and social well-being of the individual (and society), and not just the absence of disease and infirmity. (In place of the word mental in the original is the Latin term mental, including, in addition to the mental, also the mental and spiritual components of the central nervous system, determining, respectively, the nature, ability and Morality Individual .)

Modern treatment of health contains five criteria , which determine human health, is the absence of disease; normal functioning of the organism in the human-environment system; complete physical, spiritual, mental and social well-being; the ability to adapt to the constantly changing conditions of existence in the environment; ability to fully implement the basic social functions. In addition to the criteria, health components are also highlighted. Let us dwell on their characteristics in more detail.

Mental and psychological health

The main condition for normal psychosocial development (in addition to a healthy nervous system) is a calm and friendly environment.

WHO experts based on analysis of the results of numerous studies in various countries have convincingly shown that mental health disorders are much more frequent among young people who suffer from insufficient communication with peers and their hostile attitudes, as well as in children who grow up in a family environment disorder.

Psychological health involves attention to the inner world of a person: to his confidence or insecurity, in his own abilities, to understand his own abilities, interests; his attitude towards people, the surrounding world, social events that take place, life as such, etc. Psychological health is viewed as a state of mental well-being characterized by the absence of painful psychic phenomena and ensuring the regulation of behavior and activity that is adequate to the conditions of the reality surrounding life (IV Dubrovina, A V. Petrovsky, M. G. Yaroshevsky). A great negative impact on him has stress, school anxiety, conflict or oppression in the classroom.

Social health can be represented as a dynamic aggregate of personality traits and qualities that ensures harmony between the needs of the individual and society, which is the prerequisite for the individual's orientation toward fulfilling his life goal, self-actualization. A socially healthy person has personal qualities that allow him to successfully adapt to the conditions of modern life, to carry out self-education and self-education, to find means to overcome and resolve various kinds of problems (including those connected with physical ill-being), to realize their life plans.

The components of social health are the social resources of the individual (the number and quality of social ties), the level of role functioning, contacts with people, the adequacy and adaptability of social behavior of a person. Adequacy refers to the ability to respond effectively to environmental impact; under adaptivity - the tendency of effective existence and development in changing environmental conditions. Criteria of social health are also the level of social adaptation, the level of social activity and the effectiveness of using different social roles.

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