Education - Pedagogy. Theoretical pedagogy


Education is the result of education and upbringing and literally means the formation of an image of a well-trained, educated, intelligent person. Education is the system of knowledge, skills, ways of thinking that the learner has learned. It is the system, not the volume (set) of disparate information. At the present time, the presence of a huge amount of knowledge accumulated by man does not allow us to assert that a person will one day manage to master them in full even after a very long training. The acquisition of education only indicates the mastery of a given amount of systematized knowledge, skills in a certain field and the achievement of the level of independent thinking necessary for the performance of professional activities.

The main criterion of education is systemic knowledge and systemic thinking, manifested in the fact that a person is able to independently restore missing links in the system of knowledge with the help of logical reasoning. In the ancient aphorism "Education is what remains when all learned is forgotten" a great deal of truth.

A lot of people amaze us with a phenomenal memory, knowledge of a huge number of concrete facts. Reading, encyclopedic awareness is often taken for education. This is not true if a person is unable to establish a cause-effect relationship if he does not have his own thoughts. Not everyone who graduated from a school or even a university can be considered educated. Also, one can not be considered uneducated by those who have not received higher education. Here the situation is not at all simple, given that education is not what is given, but what is taken is extracted by everyone independently. Development and education can not be given or communicated to any person. Anyone who wishes to join them must achieve this by his own activity, with his own strength, with his own tension. From the outside, he can only get excited ... - summarized A. Disterveg.

Depending on the volume of the knowledge gained and level of independent thinking, the initial , secondary , and higher education. By the nature and direction of education is divided into general, professional and polytechnic.

General education gives knowledge of the fundamentals of the sciences of nature, society, man, shapes the worldview, develops cognitive abilities. The acquisition of general education is completed by an understanding of the basic laws of the development of processes in the world around the world, the acquisition of the necessary for each person training and labor skills, a variety of practical skills. The volume and direction of general education is regulated by the state, in many developed countries the general education (which is the same average) is compulsory.

Vocational Education equips with knowledge, skills and skills in a certain professional field. In the initial pre-professional and vocational schools (vocational schools, vocational schools, technical schools, schools of craftsmen), highly skilled workers are trained, and in secondary and higher vocational schools - specialists of secondary and higher qualification for various branches of the national economy.

Polytechnic education introduces the basic principles of modern production, equips the skills of handling the simplest tools of labor that are used in everyday life and everyday life.

Can you explain?

The acquisition of education involves continuous work to systematize the acquired knowledge. People who are taught to learn, always work with a pencil in their hands. One of the effective methods of systematization is the compilation of so-called cause-effect (hierarchical) schemes, where the concepts in question are correlated by logical or other links. Try, comparing different views on the essence of pedagogical categories, systematically display them in a system with a common logical basis.

1. We should emphasize the difference between learning and education. Learning is a creative process. All life "forms" the person of the person, is expanded, enriched, amplified and perfected (AV Lunacharsky).

2. "Education", "education", and "training" - overlapping concepts; their volumes overlap. The relationship between them is not stable, but historically changeable, how the phenomena themselves are changeable, which in these terms are reflected " (VE Gmurman, F. F. Korolev).

3. "Oh, fathers, mothers and all of you, on whom the children depend! Enter the detailed search for the difference between upbringing and learning: bake your children first to bring up, then teach (GS Vinsky).

4. "The result of education and upbringing is an education that expresses the level of general, political and special education

rights, the result of mastering them a certain amount of knowledge, skills and quotes (G. Bazanov).

5. Education is not the same as education. Parenting is a broader concept. In various forms and forms, it is always and everywhere.

6. Education man only gets at certain periods of his life (GI Shchukin).

7. L. N. Tolstoy, who did a lot for the United States enlightenment, several times and in various ways addresses the meaning of pedagogical categories. His views are original. "Education ... is not the subject of pedagogy." Its subject should and can be only education ... Education - forced, violent influence of one person on another in order to create such a person who seems good ... The difference between upbringing and education is only in violence, the right to which leaves behind the upbringing. Education is education forcible. Education is free ... Education and education are inseparable. You can not educate without transferring knowledge; all knowledge acts educationally. "

How do you know the educated?

What is the difference between an educated person and an uneducated person? How to learn an educated person? This was reflected by Ya. A. Komensky. Observe his actions and movements, his speech and even his silence, as well as his gait, planting, bearing, eyes, hands and everything related to him: everywhere decency, dignity and courtesy will shine through; everywhere he will be true to himself; everything is elegant and tidy. Do you want to get to know him in business? Everything goes smoothly under his hand, since every business will lead him reasonably, according to a preliminary sound discussion. Do you want to hear his speech? He can reason about anything, without revealing shameful ignorance. If, on the contrary, he has to be silent, then he will be able to soften even the very silence with discretion and propriety, so that from his silence you can learn something. If it rotates between people - it's a pleasure to look at it. If he ever has to live without a community of people, he will never feel lonely, as he is full of serious thoughts and comfort in his work. In life, he behaves in this way towards all good and evil, which in fact reveals that he is able to distinguish things and can recognize the useful from the useless. Whether everything goes according to his desire - he does not take over, does not take pride, does not become arrogant. Does he fall into misfortune - he is still the same: does not fall, does not fall in spirit, does not despair. In a word, "who is wise, he will adapt to all sorts of customs," says the poet. And we will say: who is wise, he will be able to be everywhere, useful and will be prepared for every chance. "

Educated peoples in abundance have everything ...

A comprehensive comparison of the educated peoples with the uneducated did Ya. A. Komensky. His words should be written in huge letters in the parliament.

1. Educated people are true people, i.e. human in their mores; barbarians are distinguished by brutish brutality or brutal cruelty, so that, apart from the human image (if only they say, and do not roar), you hardly recognize anything human in them.

2. With a well-educated people, everything goes like a clock; if one part is touched, all others are set in motion: one wheel pushes another, and everything is determined by number, measure and weight. The barbarians are all like a loose sheaf or sand without cement.

3. In the educated people, everyone serves each other, each in his place performs what is useful to him and others. In the case of barbarians, no one counts with the needs of another: everything is done in disarray, and therefore one interferes with one another, and a total commotion is obtained.

4. In the educated peoples, all the elements of the world bear tribute to people, and even the very bowels of the earth can not hide their treasures (metals, precious stones and minerals) from them. In the uneducated, everything vanishes without benefit: they can neither subjugate nature nor suck her breasts, nor even use it when she herself pours out her gifts on them. An excellent climate, fertile land, rivers convenient for navigation remain without use.

5. Educated people do not allow a single piece of land to be empty, no material is useless to disappear. Trees and brushwood, stones and rubble, even sand and street mud they pick up and find all this well-known use. In the uneducated, you see, nothing is cultivated, dirt and dirt, all around rot and decompose.

6. From here the first even the most barren by their nature areas that represent nothing but sand, or rocks, or swamps and mosses, are so well processed that they seem to be a paradise. In the uneducated nations, even countries that in themselves have the appearance of paradise (where, it seems, the sky itself has entered into a marriage alliance with the earth), are littered with refuse and lose their charm.

7. That is why educated peoples in abundance have not only all the things necessary for life, but also various amenities, even luxury; while the uneducated barely have the means to drag out life, feeding on raw, raw food.

8. Educated, caring about the future, they provide themselves with everything necessary in life, even for unforeseen cases, which can befall them: crop failure, attacks by enemies, pestilence or other diseases. They timely oppose them well-maintained granaries, arsenals, pharmacies. The barbarians do not have any reasonable care about life, health, security; they live from day to day, from case to case; all of them are rash and accidental.

9. The educated people discover the elegance of their minds with beautiful and elegant clothes, since everyone and everyone, small and great, noble and uncommunicative, dresses if not exquisitely, at least neatly; while the uneducated go naked or semi-legged, in rags and rags, dirty and drained.

10. The educated people have magnificent populous cities full of works of art and crafts. In uneducated cities, instead of cities, and if he calls anything a city, it's nothing more than miserable hovels.

11. Educated peoples, bound by the bonds of law, contain their own areas, and in them cities, villages, houses ... no one can cross them with impunity. In the case of the uneducated peoples ... the place of freedom takes self-will: whoever thinks what, that's what he does, not knowing anything about anything.

12. From here the first is all safe, serene, quiet and calm, and the latter are dominated by theft, robbery and violence; and therefore there is no true security, and everything is full of wiles and fears.

13. The people of the truly educated even among the rural inhabitants do not have rustic rudeness: before that everything is imbued with urban sophistication of morals. The uneducated, on the contrary, and the townspeople are the same peasants, and the city itself is just like a real village.

14. People belonging to the educated people are friendly to the newcomers, affectionately point the way, polite to those who turn to them, careful not to cause them any trouble. The barbarians either repel strangers from themselves, or they themselves flee from them, and, in any case, frighten them from communicating with themselves with their vile mores.

15. For educated people, lazy people and healthy beggars are intolerant; they are not even there at all, since every state keeps all its citizens in order and cares about their poor. The barbarians - a whole horde of lazy people who, while maintaining their existence by begging or stealing and plundering or existing both in poverty and hunger, produce various distempers and disasters. And if they struggle with this evil, then only with the help of force; and then begins a continuous penal servitude, oppression, execution and torture.

16. Educated, finding pleasure in free sciences and arts, willingly engaged in them, not one of them letting go of sight. They count the stars and measure the sky, the earth, the abyss and the unknown, that, not wanting anything anywhere, even in the remotest regions of the earth, water, air, something they did not understand. They also try to find out: the run of the centuries, how far we stand from the beginning of the world, how soon we can expect its end, so that, having before the eyes of the past, it is better to have the present for the benefit of the future. Uneducated [not only] of all this, but even themselves do not know, without thinking about where they came from, where they will go, what happens to them or around them; but because they are ignorant in the past, unreasonable about the present, are not prepared for anything that will be in the future.

17. Educated sweetens the lyre of Orpheus, and they willingly indulge in divine music, so that, captivated by the sweetness of sonorous harmony, the better it is to listen to her everywhere, following the example of David and Solomon. The uneducated are asses in music; if you hear any sounds between them, is it not - the unruly din of drunken or wild hiccups of awkward dancers.

18. Finally, the educated live among themselves peacefully, full of light, reason, good will and pure conscience, contented with God and themselves and rejoicing in their treasures. Uneducated, not possessing anything inside themselves, are completely surrendered to one appearance and, chasing instead of things behind ghosts, become the object of ridicule, wither and die at last.

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