Educational Communication in the Innovative Educational...

Educational Communication in the Innovative Educational Process

As a result of studying the chapter, the student must:


features and characteristics of the innovative educational process;

• the didactic essence of the process of informing learning;

• pedagogical characteristics and features of educational communications;

• the role of educational communications in ensuring the full socialization of the younger generations;

• Opportunities and specificity of the use of information technology in modern education;

• the basic principles of building educational communications;

be able to

• highlight the types of innovative processes in education;

• describe the educational process in terms of the development of educational communications;

• communicate between methods, forms of learning and educational communications;

• discover obstacles to the development of educational communication in learning;

• to establish the role of educational communication in ensuring full pedagogical communication;


• information and communication about the flow and implementation of a full-fledged educational process.

Modern education is distinguished by an increase in its technological mobility and a number of increasing substantive and structural changes in a dynamically globalized society. Today, throughout the world, education acquires the features of a mass, continuous and comprehensive socio-cultural practice. There are qualitative changes in methods, forms, modes and technologies of teaching.

The main vector that determines the role and mission of the modern educational system is its ability to serve as a certain innovative link in the structure of social production and development. At the forefront is the scientific and modernization resource of education as an institution that generates projects and practices of life in the future.

In this regard, for the pedagogical industry, the task of providing the innovative educational process as a single and general trend in modern didactic approaches and developments comes to the fore.

Innovative educational processes (from Latin in - in, novus - new) mean the development and implementation innovations and innovations aimed at activating a progressive beginning in the development of an educational institution or educational system (federal, regional, municipal) or an educational process in comparison with established traditions and mass practice. Therefore, innovations in the education system, as S. Ya. Batyshev notes, are associated with the introduction of changes:

- in goals, content, methods and technologies, organizational forms and management system;

- the styles of pedagogical activity and the organization of the educational process;

- a system for monitoring and evaluating the level of education;

- the financing system;

- educational and methodical support;

- a system of educational work;

- curriculum and curriculum;

- the activities of the teacher and (or) the learner.

In historical terms, the scale (volume) of the new is always relative. The novelty has a concrete historical character, i.e. it can occur before "its time", eventually become the norm or become obsolete. In the process of development of educational innovations the following criteria are taken into account: absolute novelty (lack of analogs and prototypes); relative novelty; pseudo-innovation ( originality ), inventive trivia.

Types of innovations are grouped for different reasons.

First, the classification of innovations in the education system is based on the application of the scale feature (volume). Here the following transformations are distinguished: local and single, not connected with each other; complex, interrelated; system, covering all educational institutions and educational system.

Secondly, the classification is carried out according to the sign of the innovative potential. In this case, the following are distinguished: modifications of the known and accepted, related to improvement, rationalization, modification (educational program, curriculum, structure); combinatorial innovations; radical transformations.

Thirdly, the classification of innovations is based on the grouping of characteristics relative to its predecessor. With this approach, innovations are referred to as substituting, canceling, opening, or retrograde.

As sources of ideas for renewal can act: the needs of the country, region, city, district as a social order; the embodiment of the social order in laws, directive and normative documents of federal, regional or municipal significance; achieve the complex of human sciences; advanced pedagogical experience; intuition and creativity of managers and teachers as a way of trial and error; Experimental work; foreign experience.

The most important component of the modernization of the education system is informatization of the educational process based on the introduction of modern information technologies into the learning process. As many scientists and authors emphasize, the possibilities of information and communication technologies of recent generations are such that they can provide a real breakthrough to the personification of the educational process, and help to overcome the mass reproductive nature of training. Especially serious prospects are connected with the introduction of systems of interactive technologies, high-power computers, and also with the development of the network "Internet"; (and in particular, the "fast Internet").

According to many leading scientists-educators, didacts and practical teachers, the profound and versatile informatization of education that is taking place before our eyes requires updating didactic campaigns and concepts in university pedagogy. According to AI Shutenko, such new didactic concepts should include the notion educational communications .

Generally speaking, it is necessary to understand a certain connected set of methods, channels, receptions, modes and formats for the transfer of the necessary educational and socio-cultural information related directly to the content of education and subject to didactic tasks. It is about the organization of ways of transferring the content of training in the form of scientific-methodological, illustrative, theoretical, reference, empirical and other information.

As AI Shutenko notes, educational forms of communication, known to the didactics, methods and methods of teaching, as all of them, one way or another, are represented by ways and means of transmitting information and cultural experience for the purpose of teaching. Acting as a broad enough and capacious category, educational communications can be interpreted as forming the information space of the "transportation" line. knowledge, explanatory schemes and models, as well as all the necessary information for full-fledged training.

If, speaking of communication, experts emphasize its socially-creating role, then in relation to educational communications this role is repeatedly amplified. Figuratively speaking, educational communications act as a kind of blood vessels of the educational organism of a modern school - a living, evolving system that creatively transforms in its essence and purpose.

At the present time, such an environment-forming phenomenon as the Information Society becomes an integral reality of everyday life. Scientists speak about the information socialization of the younger generation. And in this process, modern education should become a true center and generator of various educational communications. In order for the school and universities today not to lose their socializing function, they must produce their own information network as a basic socio-cultural and professionally-oriented information environment, including using the newest information technologies. This educational and information environment must resist the pressure of pseudo-knowledge from the mass culture, contribute much more effectively to the information support of students in their preparation for studies, in their independent and research work, and significantly relieve the work of the teacher, whose work is reduced by two thirds to the case of banal transmission of information.

The development of educational communications should contribute to the information clearing and the release of pedagogical resources for establishing real pedagogical communication and the interaction of teachers and students as subjects of the educational process. It is pedagogical communication, its content, which is the essence of the educational process, its basis. At the same time, it is not a secret that the traditional practice of teaching is characterized by poor and underdeveloped educational communications. In reality, the communication between the teacher and the pupils is very limited and has a formal and role character. If you look at education through the eyes of schoolchildren, at best, you can count only a few episodes of his real dialogue, genuine interaction and meeting with the teacher within the framework of a living personal communication, in the mode of contact of experience, consciousnesses, thoughts and attitudes. Scientists especially emphasize the moment of the meeting, which should be pedagogically prepared, for which both the pupil and the teacher should be prepared. However, for the most part, teachers and students can not meet in person, stuck in the barriers of formalism of a disciplinary class-lesson training system.

It is known that in the conditions of traditional education, the most part of the teacher's work, his efforts and time takes informative work. In fact, the teacher in the class plays the role of the "live monitor" before the eyes of the disciples. In the course of a regular lesson, the teacher presents new material, explains, explains, shows, informs, cites examples, obtains attention, requires discipline, etc. And this requires a lot of skill, art and mental expenses. The wide practice of teaching in our country largely continues to be based on the theoretical concepts of the explanatory-illustrative approach, in which the training scheme is reduced to three main links: presentation of the material, consolidation and control.

At the same time, the introduction of modern computer technologies into the training makes it possible to carry out the same work of explanatory and illustrative order with much greater efficiency, deployment, speed, scale and depth. Thus, the capabilities of multimedia systems allow the integrated presentation of any audiovisual information in various forms (video, text, graphics, animation, animation, slides, music, etc.) on the computer screen, realizing an interactive user dialogue with the system. At the same time, the system provides an opportunity to choose the desired line of development of the presented plot or situation from the analysis of user actions.

Thus, information technology can significantly relieve the work of the teacher. And if you take into account that the computer can perform certain functions more efficiently than the teacher, then for the latter it should simply be an indispensable professional tool. In fact, with the advent of computers in the classroom, the teacher has a real chance to stop being an informant and become a really educator, i.e. devote their efforts to the proper functions of teaching, nurturing and developing students.

It is also worth mentioning that the release of the teacher through computerization from the "information service" opens realistic prospects for solving the problems of the differentiation and individualization training, personification of the educational process and the implementation of the personal approach.

The inconsistency of the explanatory-illustrative system in the mode of classroom instruction is that these problems are actually beyond the pedagogical capabilities of the teacher, and the stumbling-block here is exactly full absorption of his pedagogical efforts by an explanatory-illustrative, information-communicating teaching methodology. The main reason for this situation is the preservation of the mass reproductive system of training with its insurmountable barriers for the expanded pedagogical activity. First of all, we are talking about the fact that in this system the teacher has to train a whole class and parallel trainees in a relatively limited time and discrete time intervals of classes, the number of which exceeds the limits of his physical capabilities for the realization of continuous and direct personal pedagogical contact. Naturally, in such conditions, the explanatoryly illustrative method of teaching has no alternative.

Informatization and computerization of training, according to many authors, allow to significantly reduce the mentioned barriers due to internal reorganization of the content, mode, method and configuration of interaction in the learning process. As a result, we are talking about the gradual overcoming of the explanatory-illustrative dominant. As practice shows, the computer allows you to significantly expand the didactic space and time frame of the training session by, for example, intensifying the information-communicating part of it in the mode of targeted inclusion of each student with the release of the teacher to perform the functions of the teacher of educational tasks, pedagogical monitoring and semantic adjustment. And this is not all the possibilities of transforming the educational process, which open with the use of a computer.

However, the computer, like any tool, is not a panacea for all ills, and its introduction into higher education has its drawbacks. As experts say, its application involves its own problems. Most of them arise in the event that the introduction of computers in the educational process does not cause changes in the methodology and philosophy of teaching. In particular, if computerization is carried out within the framework of the dominance of the former explanatory-illustrative model of learning. In this case, it brings to absurdity the costs of this model. Thus, scientists warn that if we go along the path of universal individualization of training with computers using the old method, without caring about the development of collective in form and essence of training sessions with rich opportunities for dialogue and interaction, it is possible to miss the very possibility of forming students' thinking. Real and the danger of curtailing social contacts, the education of individualism. Hence the conclusion that can be drawn is that you can not just build a computer into a familiar educational process and hope that it will implement a revolution in education. It is necessary to change the concept of the learning process, in which the computer would organically fit like a new teaching tool. The conditions created with the help of a computer should contribute to the formation of the student's thinking, to orient him to search for systemic connections and patterns.

Informatization and computerization of training does not mean simply adding a new means to the already established educational process. Computerization requires a significant restructuring of the entire teaching and upbringing process.

As experience and research of many authors show, informatization of education is accompanied by a series of serious tests for entrenched pedagogical theories and practices. The main among them is the loss by the teaching community of the former monopoly of knowledge, the loss of control over the learning information. In these conditions, there is an urgent need to change educational paradigms. The place of the former paradigm of a formative unidirectional subject-object formation should be occupied by a new paradigm of an open developing and developing subject-subject formation in which the learner and the instructor act as active, changing participants in the educational process. In this paradigm, there is no place for a monopoly on knowledge, they are extracted and comprehended in pedagogical communication and interaction, liberated through the informatization of learning from the links of information dependence. At the same time, the computerization of the school can no longer be carried out in a narrowly technical format, and it presupposes an output to a new task: from the individualization of instruction to the personification of education, i.e. personal-partner system of training.

Apparently, the development of educational communications involves not only a different philosophy and logic of addressing and operating with information that is the content of training, but also a different model of communication in the classroom.

In organizational-didactic terms, the main difference lies in the fact that in the new paradigm all the necessary educational information is presented in an open, expanded form and is given to the trainees prior to training, and not in dosed-step-by-step portions during the course of training. Equal access to information by both teachers and students allows them to provide their partner, subject-subject relationships in familiarizing themselves with knowledge, bring them to a real dialogue, to share generalized ways of doing things, meanings and values.

The development of educational communications can qualitatively change the very nature of the teaching work, rebuild its content, mode, rhythm, technology and philosophy in general. For the first time in the history of education, the prospect of painless transfer of some teaching functions from the teacher to information technologies opens up, namely, the informative function. The thus released human resource can be aimed at strengthening the pedagogical and educational role of the teacher.

In general, the development of educational communications based on the latest information technology provides a real way out of the educational system to design and implement an individual learning path.

For the successful achievement of this task, AI Shutenko considers it necessary to be guided by the following principles of the development of educational communications from the point of view of their construction and organization in higher education:

the principle of accessibility of educational communications provides for a broad and large-scale informatization of the educational space with the possibility of including each trainee in the process of free use of all available information resources and resources, the full provision of the student with the entire volume of educational, reference, scientific, theoretical , methodical, bibliographic and other information;

the principle of integration of educational communications implies their direct integration into the educational system, the culture of training and training of trainees. This principle requires close interconnection of educational communications with the goals and content of education, as well as the construction of educational information on the basis of interdisciplinary links in major problems of the theatrical cycles that combine related courses and disciplines into unified educational spheres. In addition, educational communications should not lead the person into the information abyss, but should contribute to the formation of the independent creative thinking of the learner, to orient it towards the search for systemic connections and regularities, to integrate the personality into the university community, into culture;

the principle of interactivity educational communications provides the ability to maintain information support in the mode of interactive dialogue, exchange of activities and operations. Information educational

The system should provide for the user (trainee) the possibility of interaction and choice based on the results of the analysis of the actions of the desired line of development of the presented plot or situation or picture of reality. In addition, educational communications should open the possibility of mutual communication and interaction of the trainees themselves through the network "Internet"; in the framework of educational information environments for the exchange of experience in comprehension of academic disciplines, as well as scientific problems;

the principle of targeting of educational communications assumes the correspondence of information provision to individual traits of the trainees, their age-related cognitive abilities, level of preparation, professional specialization, scientific interests. Educational communications should also take into account the complexity, scope and quality of the tasks of teaching students of different levels of learning to be solved with their help. Naturally, the level and volume of information that is necessary for high school students, for example, when implementing a training project, is incomparable with the level and volume of the same kind of information needed for a primary school student. The targeting of the delivered information should also concern its accuracy, adequacy to the educational needs and requests of the trainees;

the principle of redundancy educational communications provides for a certain amount of information, the mastery of which does not directly lead to the achievement of the goals (training tasks), but allows for broad orientation and collection of necessary information (data, reference materials and etc.), allowing the student to determine independently the set of conditions for the solution of the educational task and the implementation of his request. At the same time, the redundancy of information should be regulated by the requirement of its optimality for the relevant request of the trainee, the information supplied to the student should not confuse it, but expand the range of orienting opportunities and clarify the various nuances and aspects of the academic or scientific problem of interest to him;

the principle of sensitivity of educational communications is especially important in terms of providing feedback from the trainees in terms of their progress in the information development of disciplines and training courses. Educational communications should respond to the needs and demands of the trainees in order to make the appropriate changes on the part of the teaching staff in terms of adjusting and improving the information support of the educational process within the framework of the subjects taught, the courses, and also the research work of the students;

the principle of versatility of educational communications involves the use of various information and communication learning technologies: electronic textbooks and manuals, hypertext blocks, electronic libraries, reference books, encyclopedias, educational websites and portals, electronic journals, research editions, interactive video, multimedia training systems, virtual simulators and media, etc. It is obvious that a modern educational institution should represent a whole complex of diverse and varied educational communications, supporting various educational programs and technologies. In addition, this variety of communications should provide the opportunity for students to choose the most appropriate and relevant way of handling information in the logic of building their educational trajectory;

the principle of renewability of educational communications requires constant revision, correction, addition, updating both the educational information itself and the ways of its submission to the trainees. Today, in the face of the ever-increasing flow of new knowledge, technologies, discoveries, the task of timely recording these changes in the educational process inevitably arises. In this respect, information technologies, which unlike paper carriers (books, textbooks, manuals, etc.), provide their essential advantages in the shortest time possible to make appropriate changes and additions to the information support of both separate sections of the courses and the entire course of disciplines , and in a few seconds to transmit new information (using, for example, the network "Internet") to the attention of trainees. In this case, the student is already sufficiently insured from the need to "reopen the bicycle". It is important that these changes and innovations do not break the architecture of the educational process itself, the value-semantic and ethical foundations of professional training in the university.

The described principles allow, in our opinion, to approach the construction of the information and educational space as a space for cultural self-projecting, self-building of the personality.

It is also worth noting that the above principles of educational communication are quite applicable to the real pedagogical interaction of teachers and students in a situation of live communication. In a sense, proper pedagogical communication is also a kind of educational communications with the only difference that a plan of the most valuable interpersonal interaction is already being developed here. And in connection with this, informatization of education within the framework of the above requirements serves to improve the level of competence, preparedness of students for such communication with teachers as interaction with equal partners, colleagues and accomplices in the process of their own personal and professional development.

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