Educational process, concept, system and structure...

Chapter 3. The Eduction Process

As a result of studying this chapter, the learner must:

- know the system and structure of the educational system; model of the representation of teaching and educational systems; stages of the educational process; content and levels of education and upbringing; curricula, programs, the state educational standard;

- know how to differentiate educational processes, distinguish them from non-educational ones; analyze the structure of the educational process; to develop the maintenance of the educational process; calculate the productivity of the process from the source data;

- own methods for analyzing the holistic educational process; method of drawing up the educational process program; methods of organization of profile training.

Diagnostic indices:

The minimum time required (in minutes) to study the topic material is 160.

The difficulty (in conventional units from 1.00) of the material being studied is 0.90.

The time (in minutes) required to fully master the knowledge is 304.

3.1. The concept, system and structure of the educational process

Previous chapters were devoted to essences phenomena training, education, education, development, formation. Now we will consider them in development, movement, in order to understand how education, training, development and formation in time and space function. The operation of something in time and space is called an process. Process (from Latin processes - moving forward) - the main characteristic of any production. The process is always aimed at obtaining some result (product). The process fades out in the product.

In the pedagogical literature of the previous years, the concept of the "teaching and educational process" was used. Studies PF Kapterev, AI Pinkevich, Yu. K. Babansky and other teachers have shown that this concept is narrowed and incomplete; it does not reflect the complexity of upbringing and learning, and above all of its main distinguishing features - integrity and commonality.

More capacious was the concept of "pedagogical process". It is the unity of education, upbringing and development on the basis of integrity and community that constitutes the main essence of the pedagogical process. In other respects, the concept of "teaching and educational process" and pedagogical process are the same.

In modern pedagogical literature, other names are used for the pedagogical process: teaching and educational (preserved), didactic (where the educational function is implied), educational (in which training is automatically present), the educational process that combines education and training. The concept of the pedagogical process is used more often than others.

There are many definitions of the pedagogical process. In the most general view, the pedagogical process is the movement of learning and upbringing to one's goal. In a somewhat narrow, practical definition of the pedagogical process, let us call the developing interaction of educators and educated people, aimed at achieving a given goal and leading to a pre-planned change in the state, the transformation of the properties and qualities of the educated. In other words, the pedagogical process is a process in which social experience is remodeled into personality.

To the concept of pedagogical process there were also questions. And where is the "student process"? We are told: this is implied. Why should we? It is necessary to name, to designate.

To denote the organic unity of teaching and upbringing, the inseparability of the pedagogical and apprenticeship activities introduced the concept of edukatsii. The movement of education to its goal is called the educational process. The educational process has its own distinctive features that lead it beyond the others processes related to upbringing.

1. The educational process - the unity of the three components. teacher, pupils, the subject of education and upbringing.

2. The educational process takes place in specially created conditions. The conditions in this case are educational institutions that are specially created for the educational process.

3. The educational process has clearly defined goals. The latter are derived from the targets for the development of society, universal values ​​and have a modern scientific justification.

4. The educational process is carried out according to special plans and programs , which are developed by research institutions and approved by government agencies.

5. The educational process is managed by teachers, whose qualifications are confirmed by a diploma of the established pattern. A process in which a qualified educator is not present does not belong to the educational one.

6. The educational process ends with a guaranteed result. The system of stage-by-stage and final control of achievements functions, which takes each pupil to the level of training and education that is appropriate for him.

7. Participants in the educational process are liable in accordance with the procedure established by law for their activities and behavior.


We live in a society where many processes co-exist, directed at a person. Family, television, press, police, courts, insurance companies, banks ... All the efforts of these institutions are aimed at a person, everyone is trying to make the latter the way they need it. In all these processes there are training and education. Are they educational?

Complete the table. On a 10-point scale, assess the impact of each process on education, upbringing, development, and the formation of a person. Rely on your own experience and on the assessments that you have read or heard. The main thing: we must make sure that teachers are not the only ones who are engaged in upbringing. The data of this table will be useful for us when studying other topics.

Process Source












Family, parents

Street, friends

Police, courts




Educational Institutions

Clubs, associations



Working on yourself

Naturally, the data will reflect your subjective opinion: for each person the process is affected in its own way, and the impact is not permanent. Scientific research on the impact of various processes on the formation of man on the first place on the strength of influence derive television, the Internet, informal associations.

All processes, including self-education, can not be attributed to the educational process, because they do not have necessary and sufficient characteristics. Take for example the same television, which exerts a very powerful pressure on the growing up person. Television teaches, educates, develops, shapes. But what does television seek? Only our money. It's business. Nobody is responsible for how any impact will affect a person, what will happen to him afterwards, where he will receive appeals coming from the screen. The answer of the TV men is cynical - do not want to, do not look. But the growing man is weak, will power is not formed, and he can not make a choice. When the goal of education - the ability to make a choice - immoral television will disappear by itself.

We'll dot the i

By isolating the educational process, we actually separate the purposeful activities of education and training from spontaneous, uncontrollable influences. The medicine needed a lot to lay low on quackery, quackery. And although the latter still exist, official medicine is responsible only for its actions. The situation in pedagogy is similar. Today, teachers are harshly criticized for the bad manners of the younger generations, for the general decline of morality and education, in fact for the processes and their results, to which teachers are not related and which can not be influenced. Teachers are responsible only for the educational process and its products.

This does not mean isolating the educational process from other learning-education processes. Educators need to cooperate with the family, call for help, self-education, seek support on the Internet. However, the leading role in this must always belong to teachers, which should be consolidated by law.

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