Emotional Intelligence and Social Competence
The term emotional intelligence American scientist Peter Salovey and John Mayer introduced it into scientific usage. This happened relatively recently, the first publication of the theoretical model developed by them is dated in 1990. P. Salovei and D. Mayer define emotional intelligence as a complex psychological construct involving three types of abilities:
1) Identify and express emotions;
2) regulate your own emotions;
3) Use this information to control your thinking and behavior.
However, the problem itself is not so new, so back in the late 1970s. American psychologist Howard Gardner, the author of the theory of multiple intelligence, proposed to consider in the number of seven identified to them and two types of personal intelligence: "intrapersonal intelligence" and interpersonal intelligence & quot ;. Describing intrapersonal intelligence, Gardner writes: "In this case, the main ability is to access a person's awareness of their feelings - the entire range of feelings and emotions of a person, his ability to immediately understand the differences between these sensations, give them names, express them in a symbolic form and use them as a means of understanding and managing one's own behavior. " Interpersonal intelligence, as interpreted by Gardner, is represented as "... the ability to notice and understand the differences between others, especially to see the difference between their moods, temperament, motives and intentions." According to a number of researchers (R. Sternberg, etc.), the problem of emotional intelligence was widely spread among psychologists and philistines thanks to the publication of the popular science book of the American Daniel Goleman. He was the first to include the notion of emotional intelligence in the structure of social intelligence and suggested that it be regarded as an important component of leadership abilities, thus contributing to the growth of the popularity of this psychic phenomenon. D. Goleman described the following criteria of emotional intelligence: self-motivation, resistance to disappointment, control over emotional outbursts, the ability to give up pleasure, mood control and the ability not to let experiences drown out the ability to think, empathize and hope. However, the style of the popular publication did not suggest the description of methodological tools for identifying these characteristics, and D. Goleman did not develop them.
This problem was studied in detail and effectively by the American psychologist Rouen Bar-On in the late 1990s. Emotional intelligence, he proposes to define as all non-cognitive abilities, knowledge and competence, which enable a person to successfully cope with various life situations.
They identified five areas, each of which marked the most specific skills leading to success:
1) cognition of one's own personality (awareness of one's own emotions, self-confidence, self-esteem, self-realization, independence);
2) interpersonal skills (interpersonal relationships, social responsibility, empathy)
3) the ability to adapt (problem solving, assessment of reality, adaptability);
4) management of stressful situations (resistance to stress, impulsivity, control);
5) the prevailing mood (happiness, optimism).
The United States psychologist DV Lucia proposes to consider emotional intelligence "... as an ability to understand and manage their own and other people's emotions." Moreover, it is stressed that the ability to understand and the ability to control emotions can be directed to one's own emotions and the emotions of other people. Thus, the author, following Howard Gardner, proposes to consider intrapersonal and interpersonal emotional intelligence. These two options suggest, according to the author's just statement, the actualization of different cognitive processes and skills.
The model of emotional intelligence, proposed by DV Lyusin, includes three elements:
1) cognitive abilities (speed and accuracy of processing of emotional information);
2) ideas about emotions (as about values, as an important source of information about yourself and about other people, etc.);
3) features of emotionality (emotional stability, emotional sensitivity, etc.).
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