Emotional Mental Processes
The world of emotions is very diverse. Even a joyful, motivated desire to move forward is born of emotion. Feeling - is the inner state of a person, his emotional experience (joy, sadness, excitement, disgust, hatred, sorrow). The fact that feelings - an inalienable property of man, knew in ancient times. Chinese poet Yuan Tsui wrote:
I restrain and hide feelings,
But should I hide my grudge?
You can round the log as you like,
But the properties of the tree in it will be preserved.
It would seem that it can be more transparent than our feelings? We all experience rejoicing and bitterness, hope and despondency, a rush of feelings and insensibility. The problem seems very clear. Meanwhile Jaspers in the book "General Psychopathology" states: there is almost universal agreement on what we call sensation, perception, representation, thinking, and also, perhaps, instinctive attraction and willful act, as for the term and the concept of "feeling," there is still confusion here.
We still can not be completely sure what is meant by the word feeling in each case. Usually this word denotes any event of a psychic life that clearly can not be identified with a realization of reality, an instinctive impulse or a willful act. There is a tendency to call feelings any undeveloped, indeterminate mental manifestations, everything that is intangible and elusive can not be analyzed, for which we can not find another name.
To. Jaspers points to this paradox. One can feel indifference. You can feel that somewhere a mistake has been made. You can feel that the room is too small. You can feel that everything is clear. And more: you can not feel at ease. Indeed, all this heterogeneous set of data, which we call feelings, has not yet been satisfactorily analyzed from a psychological point of view.
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It is important to understand what exactly the basic element (or set of elements) of a feeling consists of. It would be good to give a classification of these experiences, especially if one considers that for sensations the basic elements are well studied and systematized. Following Jaspers many decades later (the book "General Psychopathology" was written and published in 1913), we can say that there are few scientific studies devoted to feelings. However, on the other hand, numerous works on the pathology of sensory experiences have been written.
Psychologists know that in the early stages of the development of the child, when the psyche is not yet fully formed, the child reacts to troubles through bodily reactions. If an early conflict is identified and somatic (bodily) responses replace affect, alexithymia is born. This is the absence of emotions, some insensitivity. You can also capture the phenomenon of operator thinking & quot ;. A person does not perceive the emotions of other people with whom he communicates, discovers emotional undevelopment, reacts only to the "information flow". The person suffering from this deficiency resembles a robot.
Emotional creativity of the individual is the ability to generate new diverse emotional experiences. Emotional creativity is proposed to be considered in two aspects: in the broad sense of the word, as a divergent feeling (in this aspect it is included in all components of the emotional sphere) and in a narrow sense as an ability. It is noted that the structure of emotional creativity in the broad sense of the word reflects the structure of the emotional sphere and is associated with a divergent feeling, which is one of the characteristics of emotions, feelings and emotional personality traits. In a narrow sense, emotional creativity is an ability, it turns out to be connected with activity and becomes the basis for artistic abilities. The structure of emotional creativity as ability includes emotional productivity (fluency of emotions), the flexibility of emotional experiences, the originality of emotions and their development.
To. Jaspers emphasizes: it is not completely out of the question, from which the development of this problem should begin. Nevertheless, psychologists have already laid a certain basis for the analysis of feelings. Leading psychological schools may well provide a certain orientation and methodology for assessing what has already been established. So, you can consider different approaches to classifying feelings.
The first approach - phenomenological - involves describing the senses through various ways of their existence. In this case, one can name, firstly, feelings that are aspects of the conscious personality and define the self. They are contrasted with the feelings that color our awareness of the objects of the external world. For example, the man's own longing, contrasted with the dreary appearance of the landscape.
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There are feelings that, to a certain extent, can be grouped in pairs of opposites. For example, Wundt distinguishes between pleasure and displeasure, tension and relaxation, excitement and peace. There are other opposites: deep and superficial feelings, sublime feeling, shock, deep sorrow and annoyance, a comic sense.
Finally, in a phenomenological classification, one can distinguish a feeling that has no object and is another deprived state or directed to an object and in this case is appropriately classified.
In addition to the phenomenological classification, it is possible to propose a classification according to the object of feeling. Imaginary feelings are directed against something supposed, and actual feelings directed towards real objects. Feelings associated with a qualitative assessment can be directed to the person who feels or to another person. They can be positive or negative (pride - humility, love - hatred). Any classification of content (social, patriotic, family, religious feelings) leads not so much to the systematization of feelings, but to the systematization of innumerable elements of content, to which feelings related to a qualitative assessment can relate. At the disposal of the language there are innumerable possibilities for this purpose, but they are adapted more for a specific description, and not for a general phenomenological analysis. This classification takes into account the different levels of mental life. There are localized feelings - sensations, feelings experienced by the body, in general vital feelings, emotional feelings (sadness, joy), spiritual feelings (bliss).
It is also possible to classify according to biological purpose , i.e. the vital importance of feeling. For example, pleasant feelings express success, while unpleasant feelings are a failure in achieving biological goals.
Next, you can oppose private and all-embracing feelings. Private feelings directed at particular objects or particular aspects of the whole differ from the all-encompassing senses in which individual elements merge into certain temporal wholes. They are called states of feelings. They are characterized in different ways. For example, there are states of irritation, a state of acute sensitivity, a state of increased or decreased excitability. The feeling of fullness of life arises on the basis of organic sensations as an expression of the vital state, aspirations, needs, inclinations and organic predisposition as a whole.
It is possible to classify feelings , affects and moods. This difference takes into account the intensity and duration.
Feelings - single, special and radical mental movements.
Affects - Instant and multi-component emotional processes, which are accompanied by notable manifestations in the bodily sphere and have a lasting effect on the somatic functions. This is a rough short-term emotion (for example, anger, horror, jealousy), which arises, as a rule, in response to a strong stimulus. In a state of affect, feelings are exacerbated, the will automatically reveals itself and the thinking is weakened. Affect differs from passion by a shorter duration, not significant in comparison with the passion of spiritual depth. Passion often breeds affects.
Greek philosophers have already tried to group affects and assess them from the point of view of moral behavior. The classical ideal of prudence belittled the affects and suggested that they be eliminated, avoiding such conditions. Especially such views were peculiar to the Stoics. Aristotle and Thomas Aquinas believed that the affects are unavoidable, but one should look for their moderate form. Christian asceticism also proposed to suppress the affections, because they did not allow to realize sinfulness in all its depth.
And. Kant wrote: "The affect should be seen as intoxication , disappearing after sleep, passion - like madness , reflecting on a certain idea, penetrating ever deeper into the soul ... - Anyone who lends itself to affect like a fit of rabies, is like, no matter how good he is, on a madman; However, since he soon regrets, it is only a paroxysm, called recklessness & quot ;.
The hero of the novel by Austrian writer Stefan Zweig Amok - The doctor from the colonies - loses the ability to manage their actions. Talking about his sensual fever, about the passion for a lady for whom he was not a man, a man, but a pariah, he compares his condition with a special kind of intoxication among the Malays. Amok is a senseless, bloodthirsty monomania. Passion in it is connected with insanity.
However, in the history of philosophical and psychological thought recognized and beneficial detection of affects. This applies, for example, to the Renaissance. This tendency was especially strengthened in the 19th century. Friedrich Nietzsche insisted on the creative basis of the affects. Many psychologists associate the disclosure of a person's creativity with an affective state.
In modern psychology, the affect is seen as an emotionally colored state, pleasant or unpleasant, vague or distinct, found in a general mental tone or in a strong energy discharge. Freud believed that every attraction finds its expression on two levels: at the level of affect and at the level of representation, ie, specific content of the act of thought.
So, the affect is an expression of the amount of energy of attraction. Under the attraction is understood the unconscious desire of man to satisfy his needs. In this sense, psychologists write about the attraction to aggression, mastery, life, death, self-preservation. Of course, we can talk about sexual attraction. The more energy, the stronger the affect.
To. Jung believed that the affect flares up in addition to the will of the person, demonstrates the "depth of the wound" that is applied to the psyche. According to the philosopher, the affect occurs at a time when the psyche is in a situation of weakness. At this moment, the adaptive capabilities of the psyche are reduced. Thus, through the affect, the very cause of this weakening is also revealed.
Unlike emotions and affects that are born in a particular moment and can quickly fade away, the feelings are much more stable and motivated. They can give rise to passions. "Of these two senses," wrote the French philosopher Luc de Clapier de Vauvenarg, "ie. consciousness of their strength and consciousness of their insignificance, the greatest passions are born; the consciousness of its insignificance induces us to break out of our own personality, and the feeling of our strength encourages and endorses it with hope. "
The word feeling was comprehended in psychology when it came to the "passions of the soul." It is known that in their feelings a person can make mistakes. Francis Bacon wrote: "The feeling itself is weak and can be mistaken ..." It is not by chance that some ancient philosophers believed that feelings can be true and false, depending on which of them we rely on knowledge, we form true or false ideas about the world. If the feelings are not true, then all our mind will be false.
The feeling should be distinguished from the mood. Mood - a prolonged state of mind or mood, which gives an emotional color to the whole psychic life. The ability to feel is peculiar not only to an individual, but even to an entire culture, a civilization that, like a person, can experience a flaw or, on the contrary, an excess of feelings. Karl Popper wrote: "This is clearly evident from the way in which I use ... such a thing as the" stress of civilization "in which an unmet emotional need is expressed partially.
This concept is associated with a certain sense of anxiety and, therefore, is psychological. At the same time, it is also a sociological concept, since it characterizes this feeling not only as unpleasant or knocking out of rut, etc., but also connects it with a particular situation in society ...
We have every opportunity to talk about the emotional underdevelopment of individuals. The world of feelings can not receive in the process of education proper development. Psychologists in particular, anxiously write about the Japanese children, who from an early age sit at the computer and play various thought games. However, the sphere of feelings becomes less stable, unfolded from this. As a result, one can fix the pathology of the inner life of a person whose emotional sphere is not developed.
Noteworthy can also be considered the phenomenon of insensitivity, which occurs with some periodic psychopathy, depression, and also in the initial stages of any processes. This is not about apathy in the proper sense, but about the sad feeling of the absence of any kind of feelings. Patients complain that they no longer feel joy or anguish, do not feel love for their loved ones, they are indifferent to everything in the world. The insensitive bearers of this syndrome are not deeply satisfied; if it is bad, such people do not notice it. They feel emptied, dead. They left all the joy of life. They complain about the inability to participate in everyday affairs, the loss of personal interests. A sick schizophrenic says: "I have nothing left. I'm cold and speechless, like a block of ice, I'm stiff. " This subjective feeling of emptiness causes great suffering to the sick. But the same fear, which these people imagine, they do not feel, can be objectively recognized on the basis of somatic symptoms. In relatively easy cases, patients complain of a "stiffness", or "muffled feelings," of a sense of estrangement.
Our feelings are ambivalent (ambivalent). You can not imagine the psyche as a kind of map, on which our experiences are rasped. Emotions easily flow into each other. Love turns into hate. In the myth of Psyche, for example, the goddess of love is suddenly the goddess of anger. Tikhon can turn into a fanatic. Coward sometimes can perform an unexpected feat. It is possible that a person suffering from an inferiority complex, in a certain situation, will be the leader.
Regulatory processes orient the behavior and activity of a person. They determine the selective and purposeful nature of behavioral reactions and actions. Any activity is inconceivable without the processes of goal-making, planning, forecasting, decision-making, self-control, correction. However, these processes differ in their integrality. In fact, is it possible to regulate a person's actions without knowledge, ignoring emotional psychic processes? Is it realistic to assess and guide people's actions without considering the will and motivation that are necessary for this type of regulation. Regulatory processes can be considered as synthetic formations that promote the integrity of the basic mental processes, so sometimes they are called integral. The individual measure of the development of each of the integral processes itself is a personal quality.
Of the three named (cognitive, emotional and regulative) mental processes, the regulative began to study relatively recently, qualifying them as a special class endowed with specific psychological characteristics. They find considerable relevance in management activities. The essence of management as such is to realize the inherent capabilities of these processes.
The most important sign of any mental process is the availability of its own and specific operational staff. For example, the operations of the thinking process can be considered analysis, synthesis, comparison, abstraction, etc. The operations of the decision-making process are the recognition of the initial uncertainty, the formulation of the choice problem, the generation and selection of alternatives, etc.
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