Emotional violence, aggression and stress in the educational...

Emotional violence, aggression and stress in the educational process

In addition to the individual and group characteristics of the participants in the interaction, their motivations, needs and goals, the experiences of the participants in the interaction, stress, aggression, anger and emotional tension often become the sources of conflict. The problem of stress is significant for the entire training group and is directly related to the atmosphere, moods, performance, productivity and quality of the teacher's own activities. The atmosphere in the classroom can become unfavorable if inefficient interaction, overloading, destructive conflicts, accompanied by mental stress (stress) arising in the teacher under the influence of strong influences take place in the organization where the teacher works. A certain stress is experienced by all working people and trainees.

Hans Selye (Sally), a Canadian physiopsychologist, defines stress as fighting and escape reaction . The word stress & quot ;, as well as success & quot ;, failure and happiness (pressure, pressure, pressure), has different meanings for different people, so it's very difficult to define it, even though it's included in our everyday speech. From the scientific point of view, stress is the physiological reaction of the body to stimuli (hard work, fatigue, uncertainty, fear, emotional arousal), i.e. events that impose excessive psychological and/or physical demands on a person, mobilize his resources to perform more difficult tasks and increase his adaptive abilities. These stimuli (they are called stressors, or stress factors) cause a mixed feeling of frustration (from lat . frustration - fraud, vain expectation), inability to reach the goal, for example, to fulfill the task on time due to inadequate resources and anxiety (fear of punishment). Our body, preparing for an emerging confrontation from outside, mobilizes all its internal energy. In more peaceful times, for example, during holidays and vacations, stress indicators decrease and, accordingly, the body's readiness to aggressive reactions caused by stress decreases.

Types of stress in conflict situations

Specialists based on the nature of stress distinguish the following types in situations of conflict or tension:

1) psychological;

2) physiological;

3) emotional and psychological;

4) information-psychological.

Psychological stress is associated with the individual characteristics of a person, his reaction to a particular situation. Work protective mechanisms of the psyche, emotional and volitional stability of the individual, the ability to relieve stress - the characteristics that affect the degree of human resistance to psychological stress. The latter include phenomena of the group or mass psyche (fears, panic, frustration, anger, aggression) and all the problems that arise with their manifestation. Psychological stress manifests itself in anxiety, depressive state, increased irritability, anxiety, increased fears.

Physiological stress comes as a complication or consequence of psychological stress, but in some people it can be preceded by other kinds of stress. Physiological stress is an atypical reaction of a person's physical (physiological) nature to a conflict situation. This reaction manifests itself in a change in the physical condition of a person: insomnia, chronic fatigue, exacerbation of chronic diseases, dizziness, loss of appetite and other body reactions.

Emotional stress is an emotional unstable reaction to conflicts, an inability to cope with the emotional tension that increases in conflict interaction. In this case, the individual spends the large emotional resources of his psyche, so the stress comes.

Information-psychological stress occurs due to information overload. In any interpersonal interaction, the human brain receives a large amount of information that must be processed. Excessive workloads, numerous contacts increase the amount of information, causing fatigue.

The reaction of people to stressors can vary depending on the character traits, the internal resources of the person and the context of the situation in which there is stress. So, the approaching terms of final examinations in the Shelter can be perceived by the heads of the institution, teachers, parents of the trainees in different ways, depending on how much the person likes to find a way out of difficult situations, are colleagues ready to rally into one team and help each other, do they understand family members need to stay long at work.

Despite the fact that people are differently susceptible to stress, chronic stress can not but affect negatively on health. In some people, the reaction is active (aggression), under stress, the effectiveness of their activities continues to grow to a certain extent ("the stress of a lion"), and in others the reaction is passive (resentment) The effectiveness of their activities falls immediately ("rabbit stress"). However, in any case, the lack of ability to manage stress leads to serious consequences and illnesses. When an aggressive reaction occurs, a person develops cardiovascular diseases (heart attack, stroke, angina pectoris, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, neuroses, as well as dental caries, gum atrophy, liver damage, etc.). When the reaction of resentment, as a rule, a person develops diseases of the gastrointestinal tract (ulcer, colitis, gastritis, oncology, etc.).

The teacher for constant stressful reactions is motivated by professional activity and the compulsory need for interpersonal contacts within the framework of formal relations and interaction in the educational process. It is in the workplace that the common stress level a person is quite high, because the terms are tightened, the bosses are annoying, acting on the nerves and depressing the behavior of others. Some teachers themselves initiate conflicts or get involved in them, especially in the process of interaction in training. A physiologically long process results in the continuous release of stress hormones. Under the influence of mental stress, vital body functions change. As a result, the heart rate increases, blood pressure rises, the rhythm of breathing changes, muscles are abundantly supplied with blood, the whole body is constantly in alert, insomnia begins before a responsible performance, there is a feeling of hunger, headaches.

Such consequences of stress prevent teachers from communicating with colleagues and trainees, forcing them to take a sick leave sheet, or even to look for less stressful work. A person can become so irritable that they are not able to interact constructively with others, some even have outbursts of irritation and violence, so stressful life situations are usually socially undesirable. Individual stress is determined to a large extent by a person's awareness of his responsibility for himself, others, by setting him to his role in the situation.

Thus, although all people have different reactions to stress, in the practice of interaction, there are general trends in behavior. So, in the 1950s. cardiologists and researchers Meyer Friedman and Ray Rozenmann discovered two types of behavior: A and B.

For behavior of type A (racehorse), are typical:

- a constant desire to do as much as possible in the shortest period of time;

- sharp speech (interrupts interlocutors);

- impatience, unwillingness to wait (counting the expectation of a loss of time);

- a negative attitude toward low workload and work orientation;

- a constant struggle - with people, things, events;

- manifested character traits: aggressive, offensive, ambitious, inclined to competition, focused on work and always in motion.

The consequence of such a life, as already noted, is ischemic heart disease. At the same time, due to their energy potential and the ability to intelligently use energy of stress, people with behavior of type A can become the driving force of innovation and leadership in their teams, in the educational process. In this case, it is often they themselves who create themselves, and sometimes others, problems of stress.

Other typical behavior is type B behavior (tortoise). Usually a person with this behavior does not conflict with time or with people, leads a more balanced, calm the way of life, sometimes quite energetic, seeks to work hard, to finish things, confident style allows him to work stably and productively.

At the same time, experts believe that insignificant stresses are inevitable and harmless, and in the middle their results are even significant. Positive stress G. Selye called eustress (from Greek her - good, for example, euphoria). Eustress is also necessary in our lives. Since stress - an adaptive response mediated by personality traits, it happens that in some people at the time of stress, general behavior is noted in behavior, actions become clearer, the speed of motor reactions increases, physical performance improves. At the same time, it is noticed that perception is aggravated, the process of thinking is accelerated, memory is improved, concentration of attention is increased. And yet, excessive stress, as practice shows, is undoubtedly harmful, including for participants in the interaction in the educational process.

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