1.4.3. Entry into adult culture: a child and society
Therefore, before entering adult culture, children need to learn the schemes of the universe created in traditional culture and language, a system of important semantic and spatial guidelines that allow the child to determine his place in the world. The concepts of the family and home, the edges or boundaries of oneself, places, situations and relationships with other people, concepts of path and place, are relevant to the formation of this coordinate system. At the same time, children do not establish borders between countries and peoples, as adults do, but between their own " and foreign territory. On the perception of what should be considered their own, and that "alien", belonging to another world, are affected by close adults, primarily parents and educators. So the mechanisms of xenophobia can be formed - fear of someone else's, belonging to another world, and, therefore, requires an increased sense of self-defense. In the same way, as E. Ericson put it, "basic trust" child to the world, the realization that the "universe supports you". These mechanisms are formed during the period of infancy.
The following mechanisms, according to GM Breslav, are emotional decentralization (early age) and spatial-temporal displacement (preschool age). At the same time, in the opinion of many scientists, the perception of oneself and its place in the world is, for any pre-school child, the "ripple of space": the possibility of shifting the point of time, which leads to a change in the space-symbolic coordinate system within which the child interprets the situation.
As R. Tagore says in his autobiographical reminiscences, he who recalls his childhood paintings must admit that at that time he acted as a painter, and not as a historian. So, remembering childhood, adults understand that they are very lively, too seriously perceived some trifles, which then exerted the strongest influence on the subsequent life, like a painter, pushing them to the fore and leaving in the shadow of things worthy of the attention of their parents, surrounding people and even society.The fact is that unlike adults, there are already many people who know and understand, always striving for the future or regretting the past, having the goal of each concrete action and activity and seeing only only it, the child really perceives the world as a macrocosm. He lives, learns the world, perceives it not just at another stage in the development of thinking, magically & quot ;: he grows into it, creating its microcosm by analogy, imitating reality or refuting it, i.e. acting, solving in the present sometimes the most incredible philosophical problems of the meaning of life and death, the struggle between good and evil. An adult, for example, seldom thinks about asking questions to God, instead of asking for something, and children do it easily and naturally. So, in the Baltics one of the famous writers conducted such an experiment: he suggested that the children ask God the most important questions for them. Here are some of them:
- Let's agree, Lord, I believe in You, and You - in me?
- God, and did you put my soul into mine or someone's?
- Why did You create this world, Do not you understand that there will be such trouble?
- Please, please, that people do not die and that there are no mosquitoes.
Children can talk with God, with the creator of this world "on equal terms". For them, this and other, invisible reality, have the same rights to their attention, the right to have children try to "fit in" in them, master them. Children get this opportunity thanks to the game, when, as DV Elkonin wrote, the child "can cry as a patient and simultaneously rejoice as a player". At the same time, two tendencies are simultaneously combined: the tendency of adaptation and socialization of the child in the surrounding world and the tendency of individualization, self-assertion of oneself in it.
As for the manifestation, the "phenomena the individuality of the child in the game can be said as follows: she transforms the child from "nothing", by which he perceives himself in being (baby, preschooler - "not yet a schoolboy", "has not grown up in anything yet" ("not yet an adult" ;)), in the entity & quot ;, which, due to its internal inconsistency, (awareness of the contradiction between "I am", "I want to be an adult" and "I can not be" or "I must listen to adults, although I do not want this" etc.) "itself repels and turns into phenomenon, in the existence of in the form of the embodiment of themselves in the role, coexistence and change of gaming and partner positions.
Moreover, the game allows you to form and brighten the entity-defined phenomenon - a character that will become the destiny of the child. In fact, the above is the realization in practice of philosophy - the doctrine of being and the essence of George Hegel.
However, the value of the game for the development of the child is not limited to this. The game is important because it forms an individual image of the world - a subjective picture of the world or its fragments, including one hundred, the other people, the spatial environment and the temporal sequence of events, reflecting the dynamics of changes in the personal senses of being.
In infantile age such dynamics are formed in the process of contrasting "I" and non-I & quot ;. In the course of the game situations that are created by the mother, the "existence" relationships are formed. and nonexistence & quot ;, i.e. potential hits in the image of the world of a fragment of reality, subject or object, event or phenomenon. The main coordinates are laid, in relation to which any fragment of the outside world will be evaluated: as its or foreign & quot ;, good and bad & quot ;. As a result, the Image of the World acquires such a characteristic as positivity - the negativity of the emotional coloring of events, phenomena, objects or whole fragments of reality.
In early age within the established system of coordinates, separate fragments of reality begin to be considered and grouped. Grouping occurs through the correlation of methods of joint subject-play and game actions with the meaning of a specific communicative situation. As a result, the first categories of the world perception are formed: the object, the subject, the quantity - the quality, the feature of the object, the part - the whole, the action. Object relations become the basis for creating joint vectors of the Image of self and the Image of the World in the form of the vector "I am the man-made world". They determine the content of the games-actions, or the child's procedural games. Subject-object relations, depending on the subject matter and content of the object-game interaction with the adult, give impetus for the appearance of the first generalizations concerning such vectors of the Image of the World and of itself as "I am Others" and "I am nature". In this case, the Image of the World acquires such a qualitative characteristic as integrity or fragmentation.
The problem is that modern children "come in" in game situations, using only such a category of perception of the world as an action, and not an object or subject. In this case, the image of the world acquires the features of rigidity or mobility.
At preschool age The image of the world is enriched with new categories of perception of the world: gender - form, coordination, cause - effect, space - time. These categories apply to all the vectors of the interaction of the Image of Self and the Image of the World, but first of all, with respect to the vector "I am Others". This is due to the emergence of games - roles and games - relationships, in the terminology of EO Smirnova. Actions in the game image help the child learn to anticipate the real consequences of their actions and on the basis of this arbitrarily change their game behavior. They enable the creation of different models of relationships with other people. So, in 3-4 years in the plot-reflective game, children model this type of relationship, such as leadership - submission. In 5-6 years in the story-role game - the type of competing and cooperative relations. At 6-7 years in the director's play, according to GM Breslav, a spatio-temporal shift is formed that allows not only to assess the situation and the image of the world with other people's eyes, but also to model its image in the past and in the future. Thanks to this, the emerging World Image largely determines the expectations of the child in relation to his own life, serves as its peculiar model. Growing up, a person in accordance with this model creates his family and a system of relationships with the outside world, repeating the lost socio-cultural cycle and trying on his most liked roles. Therefore, it is so important to form in the game personal meanings of interaction between the child and parents, teachers. Great importance in this is education as a cultural process and phenomenon.
Education as a cultural process assumes as its goal a person in whose image all the achievements of culture are integrated at a certain historical stage. A person of culture as a subject capable of absorbing, critically evaluating and transforming social and cultural experience, extracting personal meanings from cultural values, designing and mastering new examples of cultural life, is the common goal of personality-oriented education of a culturological type. This position was reflected in the works of domestic teachers KD Ushinsky, NI Pirogov, IN Betsky, VF Odoevsky, AS Makarenko, as well as such figures of preschool education as A. C Simonovich, EN Vodovozova, EI Tikheyeva.
Continuing this tradition, modern theoretical studies RS Bure, VG Nechaeva, TA Markova, SA Kozlova, AM Vinogradova, GN Godina, S.V. Peterina, LF Ostrovskaya conclude that a cultured person is, above all, a man brought up. However, today, under the influence of pedagogical anthropology, scientists are no longer simply talking about the formation of a culture of behavior, but about the formation of a basic culture of the personality, which ensures the formation of values for the child's experience, cognition and transformation of oneself and the world around him, the formation of the system personal meanings.
In basic culture of personality modern researchers and methodologists include:
- the physical culture of the personality;
- sensory culture and cognition culture;
- the culture of communication and social relations, moral culture;
- culture of activity and ecological culture;
- aesthetic culture.
Each of them correlates with the basic directions of development of the child's personality (social, moral, general intellectual and general cultural) and the directions of the educational process (physical, mental, moral and aesthetic education).
Physical personality culture is a complex systemic formation that includes the following components:
- motivational and needful - is the main motivating force that determines the direction of the personality, which stimulates and mobilizes it to manifest activity in the field of physical education;
- cognitive-intellectual - is associated with the socio-spiritual values adopted in a given culture; determines the outlook of the person, the direction of her assessments, the content of values and ideas about a healthy lifestyle, the specifics of the reflection of the results of motor activity and activity;
- athletic-active - characterizes the specifics of the organization and self-organization of the child's motor and physical activity on the basis of the acquired values and formed representations.
This does not mean that the formation of the foundations of physical culture is not related to other areas of educational work, except with the organization of work on physical education. So, the physical education educator or the head of physical education participates in ecological and health work, trains safety rules during hikes, recreation in nature. Every child should understand how important it is to avoid a health risk factor from childhood, choose a behavior style that does not harm the physical and mental state - both one's own and others. In the classes and physical culture and sporting events, not only the basic types of movements are assimilated, but the physical qualities necessary for the child in everyday life (endurance, strength, etc.) are developed, the children's attitude to their organism is established, ideas about how to lead a healthy lifestyle, the establishment of an active personal position of the child, the manifestation of empathy and assistance in different life situations. A great role in this is played by the formation of a culture of social relations in the team.
Indeed, the preschool age is most closely associated with the period of the child's entry into the culture of social relations through communication with parents, close relatives, acquaintances, peers and teachers. In relation to each of them, the child establishes his own hierarchy of relations, in the creation of which the adult's authority and position in communicating with peers (leading, outcast, etc.) play an important role. In order to ensure that every child feels comfortable in the mini community, develops and promotes the development of the other, it is necessary to observe certain rules of communication and behavior. The knowledge of these norms and the experience of their effective use is possessed by the adult, to whom the child imitates in direct activity, especially in the game. Transfer of acquired knowledge to the world of social relations is facilitated by the partners in the game, participants in joint productive or substantive activities, as well as acquaintance with older peers and, finally, unfamiliar adults with the participation of a teacher or a person close to the child. However, the formation of a culture of social relations does not take place immediately. It depends on the nature of the child, the features of his temperament, the formation of positive personality traits, which, if one can so express, ennoble the process of applying the acquired social norms. A child can not be cultural in communication if he has a negative attitude towards an adult or a peer. Only purposeful, systematic work contributes to the development of will, the ability to restrain oneself in conflict situations, the development of the ability to find a practical solution to the problem.
The formation of the foundations of moral culture is traditionally carried out through a culture of communication, behavior and activity, but is not a term identical to them. It includes the assimilation of moral concepts and the formation of moral representations, the education of social and moral feelings, and is expressed in moral judgments and behavior, in the ability to give moral assessment to what is happening and one's own behavior. That is, the moral is unthinkable without moral education. Most fully in relation to preschool children it was developed by SG Yakobson.
Moral education can not be carried out outside volitional activities. Even the child's first attempts to realize moral principles require the display of willpower. According to EP Ilyin, children become moral through the use of volitional effort, and not volitional through the use of moral principles. When moral behavior becomes a norm for them, a habit, it will itself facilitate and stimulate the fulfillment of willful acts, as well as determine their meaning. However, moral concepts and concepts become a guide for the child to action only when they are taken on a voluntary basis, deeply comprehended and turned into moral beliefs. This long process begins with the child beginning to realize his feelings, analyzing what the adults were presented as good and bad, good and evil, beautiful and ugly, to compare different patterns of behavior among themselves and take any of them. In the event that the child has already formed a number of negative personality traits, work is under way to correct them. The main pedagogical methods of correction are explanation, explanation, proof, based on the characteristics of children's perception and logic. Thanks to their use, the ability to critically treat the categorical division of actions and people into "bad" and good and the reflection of one's own actions and behavior in general. Indeed, moral education is not only in the children's absorption of social and moral norms and concepts, but also in the experience of one's own personal relationship to the moral and immoral in deeds and in all behavior. Disregard of this position leads to the fact that, although children become cultural, their ideas about morality and morality do not manifest themselves in the corresponding activity, ie. they form declarative morality. In addition, their experiences are associated with the manifestation of self-esteem, rather than moral feelings.
The formation of the sensory culture occurs in the process of acquainting the child with the sensory culture of mankind in order to develop perceptual operations consisting in the application of conditional standards for examining objects and phenomena, isolating and characterizing their properties. This occurs in the process of development of perception and imaginative forms of thinking in the course of object-practical activity and construction. All samples of actions and organization of the examination of the child is demonstrated by an adult. First, they are assimilated into a unity of orientation toward the intellectual component of this interaction-the general scheme of action and the emotional, personal meaning of the child's contact with the adult. This was written in their studies by LS Vygotsky, AR Luria, DB El'konin, and others.
At the beginning of preschool age, the child gradually acquires a certain experience not only of sensory culture, but also of culture of cognition. The culture of cognition determines in the future the need and ability for independent acquisition, application of knowledge, to self-development and self-realization of personality through knowledge and basic methods of cognitive activity at all stages of human development. This concept is one of the most common (along with the culture of behavior) and has a long history of development. So, even the Roman orator Marcus Tulius Cicero used the concept of "culture of the mind". However, the term "cognition culture" itself began to be applied relatively recently in philosophy, psychology, and pedagogy. Prior to him in pedagogy more than once used such concepts as "culture of thinking" (VI Avdeev, I. Ya. Lerner, MR Radovel, and others), the "culture of educational and cognitive activity" (TN Doronova), but they did not have exact definitions. At present, the term associated with them is used in two aspects:
- the culture of cognition as the quality of cognitive activity is characterized by the unity of the purpose, purposeful, expedient ways, means of cognition and result, adequately reflecting the object of cognition;
- the culture of cognition as a person's quality is characterized by cognitive needs and motives, personal senses, emotional attitude and the ability of the individual to arbitrarily control the cognition process.
Based on them, a generalized approach to the culture of cognition with regard to the education of preschool children offers E. Yu Goncharova. She believes that the culture of cognition of the preschool child proceeds from a general definition of the culture of cognition as the quality of cognitive activity and the quality of personality. This is due to the fact that children of senior preschool age do not fully know the ways of cognitive actions (schematization, systematization, generalization). They experience difficulties in the independent setting of the goals of activity, the systematization of knowledge, their generalization and transfer to new conditions of activity. Basically, children emotionally directly discover the meaning of knowledge, life situations, literature, works of art and do not have a mechanism for overcoming difficulties. By catching the surface meaning, they are able to reason in search of a deeper knowledge of the essence only in dialogue with the adult.
In this regard, it is necessary to select such material for discussion, the meaning of which will be understandable for the child. The world of people, the world of nature, the world of our own "I" the child is important to uncover through the value antitheses: "alive - lifeless", "moving - not moving", "top-bottom", "left-right", "near-distant", "light-dark", "good - evil", "use - harm" etc. In the process of discussion, the physical property of an object or phenomenon turns into a semantic one. In this case, entertaining examples, gaming techniques, descriptive evaluation, problem situations and heuristic conversations increase motivation to cognition. In turn, the management of the culture of cognition is facilitated by joint discussion of the goal, dismembered submission of material, reminders of the importance of achieving the goal and the ways to achieve it, search questions and assignments, discussions and pedagogical support ahead of the positive evaluation of the child's strong-willed efforts, drawing up an application and an operational plan (or the technological map of the forthcoming activity), the report on the done actions and other methods.
The formation of the foundations of ecological culture is closely related to the culture of cognition . So, by acquainting children with certain ecological patterns, it is important to form a correct personal attitude to different natural phenomena, for example, to preschoolers did not consider the rain a tragedy ("we will not go for a stroll"), but isolated its practical property ("will nourish the earth"). In this regard, the formation of ecological culture is carried out both in specially organized classes, for example, in classes on constructing from natural material or ecological experimentation, and in the process of the whole life of the child (in the group, at the kindergarten, outside it during excursions and etc.). So gradually formed ecological representations, the ability to consider, notice and analyze what is possible only with the appropriate level of formation of perception, thinking processes, so the child must have a good command of both sensory culture and culture of cognition. In addition, according to Yu. M. Shilkov, despite the fact that nature is a natural condition for human habitation, and culture constitutes an artificial condition created by itself for its own existence, the latter proves to be a reality that mediates human relations with nature and the education of a responsible, careful relationship to nature. At the same time, in the process of forming an ecological culture, it is important to disclose to the children the positive and negative human impacts on nature, to teach them how to behave properly while communicating with nature, not to pollute it, to protect natural resources not only in the surrounding world, but also at home (do not waste water and so forth). Therefore, special attention in the formation of ecological culture is given to acquaintance with the natural beauty of nature, the upbringing of the ability to notice and emotionally respond to this beauty.
Aesthetic culture includes the formation of a culture of communication, behavior and activity in the process of aesthetic perception of art and reality, artistic and creative activity, visual arts and visual activity, etc. Thanks to this, the child develops the ability to fully perceive and correctly understand beauty in reality and art, not only the artistic horizon is expanded, but feelings are also organized in a different way, the spiritual development of the personality is realized and a creative attitude to life is formed. Because "the meaning of art is not only in reflecting reality, on the desire for its transformation, change, improvement in accordance with the ideals of the artist". Therefore, in the process of formation of aesthetic culture, it is especially important to aesthetize the subject-developing and spatial environment of children's development and intersection of lines of social, moral, general intellectual and general cultural trends in the development of the child's personality.
Such experience is formed in the process of familiarizing children with the values of traditional, folk culture. This is due to the fact that folk art demonstrates value-meaning orientations (the truths of Good, Beauty and Justice), moral and aesthetic values, the ideals of artistic taste and creative self-realization of folk artists, the concept of the meaning of the life of an individual and a whole people. A great role in this is played by the acquaintance of children with works of oral folk art and folk handicrafts, involving pupils in history and technology of their making in classes in decorative and applied drawing, modeling and appliqués, during leisure and celebrations.
In addition, children get acquainted with the history and different genres of art. To make this acquaintance have a positive impact not only on the development of aesthetic perception of art and reality, the formation of experience in artistic and creative activity, but also on the formation of a basis for personal culture, it is necessary to realize the following conditions (according to the results of the studies of RM Chumicheva, NA Kurochkina , NM Petrukhina):
- Teaching children to understand what the author has told him about, what he wanted to express, i.e. highlight the personal meaning of creating a work of art;
- teaching children the perception and evaluation of artistic means used by the author (for example, the image of natural and man-made objects in the composition, the features of the design and disclosure of the content of the work in terms of its social, moral, general intellectual and general cultural significance);
- the inclusion of the experience of cognition, experience and transformation of the child's activity (in an imaginary plan) in the process of perception of a work of art with the subsequent expression of this experience in musical, theatrical, artistic, visual, constructive, architectural and other activities
- the formation in children of the ability to give a socio-moral, general intellectual and general cultural assessment of the work and use of the principle of a motivated response in the formation and expression of personal attitudes toward works of art;
the formation of moral, aesthetic, ecological and intellectual qualities in children in the process of perceiving a work of art and creating their own works in imaginary and realistic plans, involving the separation of relations between the man-made and natural worlds and their evaluation in terms of harmony and disharmony of the content of the work.
Such are the features of the formation of the foundations of the child's personal culture, which are an assessment of the result of the child's entry into adult culture.
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