The essence of a holistic pedagogical process
Studying the history of the development of views on the essence of the pedagogical process indicates that in pedagogy there was a contrast between teaching and upbringing: the teacher teaches, and the educator educates. But by the middle of the XIX - beginning of the XX century. in the works of progressive teachers began to meet substantiated arguments in favor of an objective unity of education and upbringing. This point of view was most clearly expressed in the pedagogical views of IF Herbart, K. D. Ushinsky, Π. F. Kapterev, S. Shatsky, Π. P. Blonsky, Μ. M. Rubinstein, A. S. Makarenko. At the end of XX century. in pedagogical science and practice, the idea of the integrity of the pedagogical process was established (VI Mishchenko, VA Slastenin), which was based on the methodology of studying pedagogical phenomena as a system, namely:
- determining the composition, structure and organization of the main components, establishing the leading interrelations between them;
- revealing the external links of the system, highlighting them from the main;
- the definition of the functions of the system and its role among other systems;
- the establishment of regularities and trends in the development of the system in the direction of its integrity.
The pedagogical process is a specially organized interaction of teachers and pupils, aimed at solving developmental and educational problems.
Teachers and pupils as actors, subjects are the main components of the pedagogical process. The interaction of the subjects of the pedagogical process (exchange of activities) with its ultimate goal has the appropriation by the pupils of the experience accumulated by mankind in all its diversity. The content of education (experience, basic culture) and means are two more components of the pedagogical process. The interaction of teachers and pupils on a content basis with the use of various means is an essential characteristic of the pedagogical process taking place in any pedagogical system.
The system-forming factor of the pedagogical process is its goal, understood as a multi-level phenomenon. The goal is internally inherent (immanent) to the pedagogically interpreted social experience, is present in an explicit or implicit form both in the means and in the activity of teachers and pupils. It functions at the level of its realization and realization. The pedagogical system is organized with an orientation toward the goals of education and for their implementation, it is entirely subordinate to the goals of education.
Considering the pedagogical process as a dynamic system and considering that its dynamics, movement is caused by interaction or exchange of activities of the main participants, it is possible to trace the transition of the pedagogical process from one state to another, having determined its basic unit ("cell"). Only under this condition can we understand the pedagogical process as the developing interaction of its subjects, aimed at solving educational and educational problems. The pedagogical task is a unit of the pedagogical process. In the real pedagogical activity, as a result of the interaction of teachers and pupils, various situations arise. The introduction of goals into pedagogical situations gives interaction a purposefulness. The pedagogical situation, correlated with the purpose of the activity and the conditions for its implementation, is a pedagogical task.
It is customary to distinguish between tasks of a different class, type and level of complexity, but they all have a common property, namely: they are tasks of social management. However, the cell pedagogical process, striving for its smallest unit, we can only consider operational tasks, an organically built series of which leads to the solution of tactical and then strategic tasks. What unites them is that all of them are solved with observance of the conceptual scheme, which involves the passage of four interrelated stages:
- analysis of the situation and setting of the pedagogical task;
- design options and choose the optimal solution for these conditions;
- implementation of the plan for solving the problem in practice, including the organization of interaction, regulation and correction of the pedagogical process;
- analysis of solution results.
Pedagogical interaction is a universal characteristic of the pedagogical process. It is much broader than the category "pedagogical influence" that reduces the pedagogical process to subject-object relations, which in turn are the result of the mechanical transfer to the pedagogical reality of the basic postulate of control theory: if there is a subject of control, then there must be an object. In the theory of traditional pedagogy, the subject is a teacher, and the object, naturally, is considered to be a child, a schoolboy and even an adult student. The notion of the pedagogical process as a subject-object relation was consolidated due to the assertion of authoritarianism in the educational system as a social phenomenon.
Meanwhile, even a superficial analysis of real pedagogical practice draws attention to a wide range of interactions: "student-pupil", "student-collective", "student-teacher", "students-mastering object" etc. The main relation of the pedagogical process is the interrelation "pedagogical activity - the activity of the pupil". However, the initial, ultimately determining its results, is the attitude of the "pupil is the object of assimilation."
This is the very nature of pedagogical tasks. They can be solved and solved only through the teacher-led activity of students, their activities. DB El'konin noted that the main difference between the educational task and all others is that its goal and result is a change in the acting subject, which consists in mastering certain methods of action. Thus, the pedagogical process as a particular case of a social relationship expresses the interaction of two subjects, mediated by the object of assimilation, i.e. content of education.
Based on the interaction the pedagogical process can be presented as the integration of the interrelated processes of interaction of teachers with pupils, parents, the public; interaction of students among themselves, with objects of material and spiritual culture, etc. It is in the process of interaction that information, organizational, activity, communication and other relationships and relationships are established and manifested. But out of all the diversity of relations, only those who are educational in the course of their realization are educated, leading to the assimilation by the pupils of certain elements of social experience and culture. From the wealth of the actual relations of the individual, and its actual spiritual wealth depends. The attitudes of the pupil included in the pedagogical process are a universal phenomenon that characterizes upbringing. In terms of their level of formation, one can also judge about the general level of personality development.
It is customary to distinguish between different types of pedagogical interactions, and consequently, relationships:
- pedagogical (attitudes of educators and pupils); mutual (relations with adults, peers, younger);
- subject (the relationship of pupils with objects of material culture); relationship to yourself.
It is important to emphasize that educational interactions arise even when pupils and without participation of teachers in daily life come into contact with surrounding people and objects.
A strong argument in defense of interaction as an essential characteristic of the pedagogical process is the fact that the entire diverse spiritual life of pupils in which their upbringing and development takes place has, as its source and content, interaction with the real world, organized and directed by teachers, parents and other educators. And with the development of pupils their own role in these interactions increases.
Pedagogical interaction always has two sides, two interdependent components: the pedagogical influence and the response of the pupil.
Impacts can be direct and indirect, differ in the direction, content and presentation forms, the presence or absence of a goal, the nature of feedback (managed, unmanaged), etc. Equally diverse are the responses of pupils: active perception and processing of information, ignoring or opposing, emotional experience or indifference, actions, actions, activities, etc.
The next aspect of considering the essence of the pedagogical process is the idea of it as a holistic process.
The integral pedagogical process inherent in the internal unity of its constituent components, their harmonic interaction. It is constantly moving, overcoming contradictions, regrouping interacting forces, the formation of a new quality. Thus, the whole pedagogical process is a process that integrates the goals of education and upbringing in a holistic and interrelated relationship in the conditions of pedagogical systems in which educators and educated persons interact in an organized manner.The structural components of a holistic pedagogical process are: the goal, content, forms, activity of the teacher, realized through a system of pedagogically expedient tasks, methods and means, and the activity of the student (pupil, collective of students or pupils), determined by his personal goals, motives available and understandable methods and means, as well as the result of joint activities.
The activity of the teacher is the activity of a specially trained specialist, determined by the goals and tasks arising from the social order, transformed in the professional consciousness of the teacher and realized with the help of expedient, correct and adequate methods and means.
The activity of a student or a group of students is also determined by conscious or unconscious goals and motivations, which are personal goals of each individual and far from always coincide with the goals of the team and all the more with the teacher's goal. The pupil uses in his work the methods and means by which he was armed in the process of socialization.
In the structure of a holistic pedagogical process, the content-goal component of the pedagogical process, the organizational and activity component, the emotional-motivational component, the control-evaluation component are singled out.The content-goal component of the pedagogical process is interrelated pedagogical goals, on the one hand, and the content of pedagogical work in which pedagogical goals are realized, on the other hand.
The organizational and activity component is manifested as the management of educational activities by teachers (in other words, the organization of the pedagogical environment for the formation and development of the personality of the pupil) and as the organization of direct interaction of educators and pupils, in which the organizing role of teachers is manifested.
The emotional-motivational component of the pedagogical process is characterized by certain emotional relations between the subjects, as well as the motives of their activities, among which the motives of the pupils should be on the foreground. The formation of socially valuable and personally significant motives determines in many ways the effectiveness of the pedagogical process.
The control and evaluation component includes: monitoring and evaluation of the activities of the pupils by educators; awareness of pupils of their successes and shortcomings; monitoring and evaluation of its results on the part of the state and society as a whole; self-evaluation of the teacher's activities, the ability to monitor its effectiveness, to reflect.
Holistic pedagogical process realizes several functions: educational, educational, developing.The educational function of the holistic pedagogical process is manifested in everything: in the educational space in which the process of interaction with the pupil takes place, in the personality of the educators and their professionalism, in the curricula and programs, the forms, methods and means used in the teaching and upbringing process.
The educational function of a holistic pedagogical process consists in mastering human culture as a sum of knowledge, skills, experience of creative activity and realized in the learning process, as well as in all extracurricular work.The developing function of the holistic pedagogical process is realized in the fact that development in the process of education is expressed in qualitative changes in the person's mental activity, in the formation of new qualities and new skills; this function is realized with any organization of the educational process, the intensity of development is determined by what the emphasis is on.
The driving forces of a holistic pedagogical process are contradictions that are conditionally divided into external and internal ones. External contradictions are expressed in discrepancy:
- between external influences and demands and internal willingness to match them;
- between the purposefulness and plannedness of the educational process and the disorder of the influence of the social environment;
- between the increasing flow of information and limited opportunities to embrace it in the pedagogical process
- between the generalized experience presented in the content of education and upbringing, and the individual life experience of an individual person
- between new educational and educational tasks and the existing level of education and education of the child's personality;
- between the collective forms of upbringing and learning and the individual character of mastery of spiritual values;
- between the regulation of the pedagogical process and the pupil's own activity.
Internal contradictions of the whole pedagogical process are expressed in the discrepancy between the knowledge of the person of moral and ethical norms and rules of behavior in society and the level of formation of the corresponding skills and habits; formed by the ideal of personality and real behavior, etc.
The patterns and principles of a holistic pedagogical process are more fully reflected in other sections of the textbook. Regularities of the whole pedagogical process are objectively existing, stable, repetitive, necessary and essential links between pedagogical phenomena, processes, separate components of the pedagogical process that characterize their development.
Under the principles of a holistic pedagogical process, it is accepted to understand the system of basic, basic requirements for upbringing and learning that determines the content, forms and methods of the pedagogical process and ensures its success: this is a manifestation of the due in the pedagogical process. The principles of a holistic pedagogical process reflect the internal essential aspects of the activities of the educator and pupil and determine the effectiveness of education in various forms and with different content.
The principles are implemented through a system of rules reflecting more particular provisions of the principle. Principles of a holistic pedagogical process include the following principles: humanization, democratization, nature suitability, culture, unity and consistency of the impact on pupils, scientific, accessible, clear, systematic and consistent, conscious, active, strong, connected theory with practice and with life.
Holistic pedagogical process is divided into several stages. Stages are not parts, but sequences of development of the process. The main stages can be called: preparatory, main and final.
At the preparatory stage, proper conditions are created for the process to proceed in a given direction and at a given speed. At this stage, the following important tasks are solved: goal-setting, condition diagnostics, forecasting of achievements, design and planning of the development of the process.
The essence of goal-setting is to transform the general pedagogical goal facing the system of public education into concrete tasks achievable at a given interval of the pedagogical process and in the existing concrete conditions. The goal setting is always attached to a specific system for the implementation of the pedagogical process - school, class, lesson, etc. At this stage of the functioning of the pedagogical process, the contradictions between the requirements of the general pedagogical goal and the specific capabilities of the contingent of students in the school are revealed, and ways of resolving these contradictions in the projected process are outlined.
In order to determine the purpose and objectives of the process, it is required to perform condition diagnostics. Pedagogical diagnosis (from the Greek "bottom" - transparent, "gnosis" - knowledge) is a research procedure aimed at "clarification" conditions and circumstances in which the pedagogical process will proceed. Its main goal is to get a clear idea of the reasons that will help or hinder the achievement of the intended results. In the process of diagnosis, all information is collected about the real capabilities of teachers and students, the level of their previous training, the conditions of the process and many other important circumstances. Initially, the assigned tasks are corrected according to the diagnosis results. Often, specific conditions force them to be reviewed, brought into line with the real possibilities.
Predicting the course and results of the pedagogical process follows the diagnosis and is to assess in advance, beforehand, before the beginning of the process, its possible effectiveness in the current concrete conditions. Applying scientific forecasting, we can learn about what else is not, in advance theoretically weighed and calculate the parameters of the process. Forecasting is carried out using rather complicated methods, but the costs of forecasting pay off, because in this case teachers are able to actively intervene in the design and progress of the pedagogical process, without waiting until it turns out to be ineffective or leads to undesirable consequences.
The preparatory stage of the process organization project is completed, which, after finalization, is embodied in the plan. Like the process itself, the plan is always tied to a particular system. In pedagogical practice, various plans are applied, they have a certain period of validity and are the final document, in which it is precisely defined who, when and what needs to be done.
The stage of the implementation of the pedagogical process (the main one) can be regarded as a relatively isolated system that includes important interrelated elements:
- setting and explaining the goals and objectives of the forthcoming activity;
- interaction between teachers and students
- use of the planned methods, means, forms of the pedagogical process;
- creating favorable conditions;
- the implementation of a variety of measures to stimulate the activities of schoolchildren;
- ensuring the connection of the pedagogical process with other processes.
The effectiveness of the process depends on the extent to which these elements are related to each other, whether their direction and practical implementation of the common goal and to each other are contrary. For example, in the course of pedagogical interaction, operative pedagogical control is carried out, designed to play a stimulating role. But if its direction, volume, purpose and are subordinated to the overall goal and direction of the process, but do not take into account a lot of other specific circumstances, control from the stimulus can become a brake.
An important role in the process of implementing the pedagogical process is played by feedbacks that serve as the basis for making operational management decisions. Feedback - the basis for quality management of the process, its development and strengthening, each teacher must give priority. Only by relying on it, it is possible to find a rational ratio of pedagogical management and self-management on the part of the educated. Operative feedback during the pedagogical process contributes to the timely introduction of corrective amendments that give pedagogical interaction the necessary flexibility.
The cycle of the pedagogical process is completed by the stage of analysis of the achieved results (final). This is necessary in order not to repeat the mistakes that inevitably arise in any, very well organized process in the future, in order to exclude the ineffective aspects of the previous one in the next cycle. Analysis leads to the training of teachers, this is the right path to the heights of pedagogical skill.
It is especially important to understand the reasons for the incomplete correspondence of the course and results of the process to the original plan, to determine where, how and why the errors occurred. Practice confirms that the most mistakes occur when the teacher ignores the diagnostics and forecasting of the process and works "in the dark", "to the touch", hoping to achieve a positive effect. In addition to disappointments, dissatisfaction, loss of time and interest, this process can not be given to students.
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