EV Ledyankinoy's Program - Pedagogy and Psychology of Nonviolence in Education

EV Ledyankin's program

In a similar but somewhat different key, EV Lediankina's study [10] was carried out. Firstly, the author does not speak about the formation of a position of non-violence among younger schoolchildren, but about her upbringing. Secondly, the emphasis is on the pedagogical support of this process.

The upbringing of the position of nonviolence is understood as a specially organized pedagogical process aimed at developing students' peacefulness, benevolence, empathy, the ability to interact with the outside world on non-violent principles, based on building conflict-free relationships between people. Structurally education of the position of nonviolence includes the following four main components, namely formation:

1) psychological stability (achieving a balance between social adaptation of a person and the assertion of his individuality);

2) the system of positive attitudes (the translation of value orientations into a positive way of making differences in the surrounding world);

3) a complex of individual qualities (manifestation of empathy, peacefulness, cooperation, cooperation, aspiration for dialogue, etc.);

4) the system of personal and group values ​​(achievement of resistance to stress and psychotraumatic factors, resistance to uncertainty, conflicts, behavioral deviations, etc.).

The study describes the process of nurturing the position of non-violence among junior schoolchildren in the differentiation of all its constituent processes, showing their unification into an integrative whole, which is a working open system consisting of certain provisions that educators must adhere to in their activities. In particular, they include the following:

1) taking into account the subjectivity of the individual, which requires relying on the activity of the child himself, stimulating his self-education, conscious behavior and self-correction in relations with other people, readiness for cooperation, mutual empathy and establishment of a mutually respectful dialogue with the aim of achieving greater mutual understanding,

2) consideration of the adequacy factor, which implies the correspondence of the content and means of education of the social situation in which the educational process is organized;

3) consideration of the factor of individualization, which involves the definition of an individual trajectory of education for the rejection of violence and related behavior of the child, the allocation of special tasks corresponding to individual characteristics and the level of development of this personal quality; 4) consideration of the position on the reflexive position, which presupposes an orientation toward the formation in children of a conscious stable system of the student's relations to any issue that is significant to him, the question manifested in the corresponding behavior and actions;

5) the need to create a tolerant environment, where there is a spirit of rejection of violence, mutual responsibility of participants in the pedagogical process, empathy, mutual assistance, as well as motivation and ability to jointly overcome difficulties.

According to the author, it is the creation of a tolerant space that promotes the productive realization of the idea of ​​nurturing a position of nonviolence.

E. V. Ledyankina defines it as a specially organized and purposefully mastered environment created through the organization of interrelated pedagogical events aimed at developing students' ability to interact on non-violent principles is a kind of result of purposeful organizational and pedagogical activity and at the same time a factor in shaping the position of nonviolence in junior high school students. It is concluded that tolerant space can become a pedagogical reality only if adults constantly make efforts to maintain it on the basis of constant dialogue and cooperation of all interested persons and institutions.

Theoretical analysis allowed the author to determine the following principles, which fully determine the tolerant nature and reveal the educational potential of the primary school's educational space:

- the principle of value priorities (rejection of violence as an educational value, formed in the student in the process of his teaching and daily life);

- the principle of subjectivity (the development of a schoolboy in the context of the needs of his emerging personality on the basis of reflection, adequate self-esteem, setting his own goal, choosing the means and organization of actions, the subsequent analysis of the result of these actions, etc.);

- the principle of dialogue (the organization of the relationship of partners in communication, based on the acceptance of each other as a value, accessible entry into their inner world);

- the principle of pedagogical support (the organization of conditions that ensure the satisfaction of the student in his needs for self-expression and self-determination, freedom of choice in communication, in recognizing the right to be what he is),

- the principle of integrating educational impact (the organization of interaction of all subjects of education on a humane, tolerant basis).

As the pedagogical conditions for nurturing the position of nonviolence, the following are distinguished:

- recognition by teachers of the personal model of interaction with children as a priority and significant in the organization of the educational process (recognition of the child as an active subject of education in the context of activities that provide the most favorable conditions for its free development of mental and spiritual potential);

- the formation in schools of attitudes of tolerant consciousness (ensuring the development of the child's interest in the problem of nonviolence and tolerance, as well as the development of his motivational components of the position of nonviolence and the formation of tolerance in himself);

- simulation modeling in the pedagogical process of life situations, aimed at forming the junior schoolchildren's readiness for the peaceful resolution of problem-conflict situations (organization of teaching students constructive behavior in conflicts, and the formation of skills to resolve conflicts and negotiate);

- the organization of special work with parents aimed at changing the nature of child-parent relations as a factor in the education of non-violence in children (organization of purposeful pedagogical work to educate parents of the importance of recognizing the subjectivity of the child in the educational process and respecting the principle of respect for the individual and the rights of the child and trust to it).

As the specific tasks of educating the position of non-violence among younger students are:

1) the education of the younger schoolchildren of peace, the spirit of nonviolence (learning to understand complex situations, finding ways to get out of them without using force, being active in maintaining peace in the surrounding society);

2) correcting the aggressive behavior of schoolchildren, fostering a humane attitude towards people, developing the ability to positively resolve conflicts (forming the ability of the children's community to think about others, understand them, cooperate with them, and create an atmosphere of security and intolerance towards humiliating human dignity relations between people); 3) the humanization of the system of relationships between adults and children, which includes the development of the position of non-violence in the relationship with children and the change in the nature of the child-parent relationship (giving the child freedom in the educational process, which means that the carrier of the content of education is the adult himself , and the child, and the object of education is only educational material).

We are also interested in a methodical solution to the problem. There are three groups of methods. Methods of changing activities and communication (the introduction of new activities and communication, as well as changing the meaning of activities and communication). Methods of changing attitudes (changing integral relations within more attractive relationships for children, which manifest themselves in such, for example, activities, as joint activities). Methods of changing the components of the educational system (creating a benevolent psychological climate in the children's team and establishing a culture of relations between adults and children).

In this regard, the "I-You-Us" program was developed, aimed both at transferring to students knowledge, skills and social communication of people, and for nurturing a position of nonviolence in interaction with other people. Proceeding from this, EV Ledyankina comes to the conclusion that the content of the program requires, first of all, the introduction of such tasks as: the formation in students of a culture of communication in the system "student-student", "adult-child"; the development of the ability to build their relationships with others in different situations; Teaching students how to overcome problems in interaction with others. The forming experiment showed that the most productive are such forms of extracurricular activities with children as: a communication club and special corrective classes. The purpose of organizing a communication club is to create conditions for the full communication of students. The goal of special psychocorrectional activities was the development of children's communication skills in various life situations, as well as preventing their aggressive behavior and undesirable traits.

The results of the forming experiment allow to draw a conclusion that the pedagogical conditions of the education of the non-violence position in the younger schoolchildren, as well as the developed programs, the system of game exercises, aimed at taking the non-violence position by the children of primary school age, gave positive results for all the criteria accepted by the author .

As a result, it can be concluded with all responsibility that pedagogical theory and practice have accumulated an interesting experience in shaping the basis of non-violence in children of primary school age, which can be recommended for wide dissemination.

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