Family as the primary institution of socialization of personality
Basic concepts : social institution, family, family as a social institution, primary institution of socialization of the personality, family categories, social system, family as a social system, own family potential, prosperous family, disadvantaged family, functions of the life of the family.
The family is traditionally considered to be the primary social group in which individuals are born and which provides for their initial upbringing, physical, psychological and, in general, social protection and support. In addition, according to the traditional definition, the family is a social system that varies in time and consists of individuals of several generations. Usually all members of such a system are united by related ties, i.e. multilateral relations between husband and wife, parents and children, brothers and sisters, other relatives living together and leading a common household. Like any active social system, it is in constant interaction with the surrounding social environment and undergoes various changes under its influence.
Analysis of existing approaches in the consideration of the family as one of the social institutions of society, as well as the essence and content of an active social system in an open society allows one to identify three significant elements in the socio-pedagogical characteristics of the family:
1) classification characteristics (types of families and their family structure, social and pedagogical phenomena and processes characteristic of the family, health status, social mobility, consumer behavior, etc.);
2) the nature of the problems of the life of the family (the ratio of values of spouses and children, family roles, interpersonal adaptation, parenting, etc.);
3) the potential of the family (intellectual, moral, educational, economic potential, including the current state of the psychological health of the family, etc.).
In order to study the family, understand the peculiarities of social and pedagogical phenomena occurring in it, it is important to know the basic characteristics of a small social group (for example, its quantitative indicators, the grounds for classifying, etc.). The family as a small social group is a community of close people belonging to a particular social system and being an organic part of its structure.
Along with the typology of the vital activity of the family, an important consideration for its characterization as a social institution is the consideration of the socio-pedagogical phenomena and processes inherent in it as a small social group. In the family there is a whole process of returning a socially active personality to society through its own capabilities.
Each of the categories of families has its own common and specific features and problems of life activity, which are determined by the nature of the socioeconomic transformations taking place in the country, the whole way of life of United States society
Here are just a few of them.
The problem of becoming a family is due primarily to those significant changes in the content of ideas about today's family in general and their own family in particular, not only among any age group of the population (for example, among youth) its parts. The problem of family life stability is manifested in its focus on the state of the family's mental well-being, as it often ensures an adequate social environment for the regulation of the behavior and activities of each family member. The problem of raising children in the family reflects the quality of the relationship between parents and children, children between themselves and children with a social environment. This sphere of family life is quite problematic. The problem of meeting the needs for social and pedagogical assistance to the family is manifested in the fact that in recent years the number of potential clients with problems of intra-family property in need of qualified assistance has increased dramatically.
To know the features of the family as an active system, its structural components and their interdependence with the available reserves of social activity means to find the key not only to understand the essence of its own potential, but also to manage its formation and development, the decision of a concrete social and pedagogical situation that is vitally difficult for the family.
Therefore, today, the problem of studying the family's own potential and finding ways to develop it through social work becomes especially important.
The family's own potential represents the totality of available socio-economic, moral, psychological, pedagogical, physiological and other significant sources, resources, opportunities, means of achieving a certain family goal, which exists, as a rule, in a potency, hidden and capable of manifesting itself in stimulating conditions.
A significant place in the family's own potential is the pedagogical aspect. At one time it was reflected by VA Sukhomlinsky in the famous formula: "The genuine school of education, cordiality, sincerity, responsiveness - family".
Thus, I. V. Grebennikov, investigating the educational potential of the family, presents it as a "complex of conditions and means in the aggregate of the pedagogical possibilities that determine it."
In a number of works, the educational potential is identified with the presence of "normal moral relations, the environment of mutual understanding in the family and its immediate surroundings", or with the "microclimate in the family" and the activation of her social and pedagogical functions, or with the "working atmosphere of the family", "life experience", "family traditions" and so on
In turn, there is a group of authors considering in the context of the "educational potential of the family" "pedagogical capabilities of the family", as noted in the work of M. Koval, or "educational opportunities", which we see in the publication of Yu. Ya. Levkov, etc. Moreover, the educational opportunities of families, as noted by TA Gurko, EI Kupriyanov and PV Malyarov, are largely determined by the psychological and pedagogical literacy of parents. "The variety of approaches to the study of the family's own potential is reflected in the scientific literature by various concepts: "the life potential of the family itself", "the potential of the forming influence of the family on children", "moral potential", "educational potential", "educational opportunities "," psychological family climate "," moral-psychological health of a person in the family "; etc. At the same time, most authors attach to these definitions an identical meaning, the essence of which is reduced to the expression of its static and dynamic component. It was revealed that the static component is manifested in the potential of the family: educational, pedagogical, psychological, moral, psychophysiological, etc. These include knowledge, skills, personal qualities and social roles of family members, family values , motives of intra-family communication, general-purpose goals and prospects, etc. Together, they reflect the level of family enlightenment and its preparedness, the ability to independently restore impaired functions.
The dynamic component reflects more or less stable conditions, the mood of the family, such as the "psychological climate of the family," emotional experiences and relationships of family members to each other, and to other people, to events, to activity. At the same time, the dynamic component reflects the state of the norm or deviation in the functioning of the family, in the behavior and orientations of family members. It embodies the social and moral aspects of health (physical, mental, social, etc.) of the individual and the ability of the family to resist the situational impacts of the social environment and provide mutual support. From this point of view, the dynamic component is presented as an integrative phenomenon and can manifest itself in the sphere of the psychological health of the family.
The most important characteristic of the dynamic component of the family's own potential is the psychological health of the family; the similarity of family values, functional-role consistency, social role relevance, adaptability in microsocial relations; emotional satisfaction, aspiration for family longevity.
Thus, a significant indicator of the socio-educational characteristics of the family as an active social system is own family potential . The basis of its structure is the dynamic component, manifested in the form of its psychological health.
Any family is subject to a change in its position in the classification typology. So, as a result of divorces, widows, hundreds of families become incomplete every year, thousands of families become a problem family because of the lack of housing; almost every second family constantly meets with serious psychological and pedagogical problems.
Actually, any family (urban, rural, etc.) has the right to rely on active help from a family social teacher.
In a family, no matter what social group it belongs to, there are functions that in one form or another persist realistically or in potency throughout the whole life cycle of a full-fledged family.
Among the most important for the modern family, taking into account the previously considered classifications, the following functions can be distinguished:
- an educational function;
- the function of economic relations,
- the function of intelligent communication;
- the function of psychological relaxation;
- the function of procreation and sexual-erotic relationships.
Among the various categories of families most important for the socio-pedagogical characteristics of the family as a social institution today, it should be noted: young, middle-aged, elderly families; childless, small children, large families and complex families; families that are prosperous and unsuccessful; extramarital and mixed families; incomplete and maternal families, as well as distant, heterogeneous and international families. Their complete description is set forth in the monograph of VS Torokhtiy and N. V. Viderman.
Each of them has its own peculiarities and role in society and socialization, the circle of communication and its content, the emotional depth of communication between family members and representatives of the microenvironment of their and the opposite sex, the social and pedagogical goals of the family, etc.>
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