Features of training in the Renaissance - Theory of Learning

Features of training in the Renaissance

A new page in pedagogical culture opens in the era of the late Middle Ages (XIV - early XVII century.). With the revival of the sciences, the arts (the flowering of the paintings of Raphael, Michelangelo, Leonardo da Vinci, Titian), Great geographical discoveries (1492 - the discovery of America, 1498 - the opening of the sea route to India, etc.) there is a tendency to rethink the place man on Earth. The Renaissance is the era of the cult of man. The pedagogical practice of this period saw its task as the formation of an active personality, striving to transform the surrounding reality. Changing public pedagogical landmarks entailed an active process of reorienting the education system to humanistic principles.

By the XIV century. education in the countries of Western Europe is developing as an independent industry, and in its content, a change in value orientations is taking place. If in the previous historical periods a limited circle of seven sciences was used, then in the Renaissance the grammar becomes the basis of the emerging independent sciences - literature, history and logic. In education, the role of the native language increases, the prestige of the ancient authors, and at the same time the forgotten Greek language, rises. The cycle of natural sciences is given great importance, geometry is studied together with geography, astronomy with mechanics.

The expansion of the content of education in the Renaissance and the impact of this process on subsequent periods of pedagogy development are presented in Table. 15.1.

Table 15.1

The content of education in different periods of pedagogy development

Until the XIV century.

XIV-XVI centuries

XVII-XVIII centuries.

Grammar

Grammar

Literature

History

Grammar

Literature

History

Rhetoric

Rhetoric

Rhetoric

Dialectics

Dialectics

Logic

Ethics

Arithmetic

Arithmetic

Arithmetic

The Athebra

Geometry

Geometry

Geography

Geometry T Rigonometry Geography Botany Zoology

Astronomy

Astronomy

Mechanics

Astronomy

Mechanics

Physics

Chemistry

Music

Music

Music

The changes that occurred, in turn, required the activation, independence, creativity of students and appeals not to their memory in general, but to logical thinking, imagination. French humanist writer Michel de Montaigne (1533-1592) wrote: "Knowing for memory is not knowing." In connection with the growing diversity of sciences, the increasing complexity of teaching methods, there is an urgent need for subject teachers, or "school masters", for example letters, bills, etc. A characteristic feature of the pedagogy of this period is a clear hierarchy of the education system : the lowest step is represented by an elementary (lower) school; educational institutions of advanced general education - by urban (Latin) schools, gymnasiums and colleges, colleges; the highest level - by universities, circles and academies.

The innovation in the education system has become circles and academies, which earlier than other institutions used the humanistic principle in education. Active participation in their work was accepted by large scientists - university professors, statesmen, clergymen, thinkers-humanists, students. The main content of live conversations, communication, correspondence - the study and implementation in modern conditions of the classical heritage of thinkers of past centuries. As in the universities of the Middle Ages, special attention was paid to ancient Greek philosophy, philology, ethics and law.

The new family school is new in form and essence. The most famous of this type of schools is the "House of Joy" Vittorino (Ramboldini) and Feltre (1378-1446), founded in 1423 in Italy. Respectful attitude to the child, taking into account his individual interests, needs, inclinations - the main reference points in the construction of the educational process. To implement the principle of humanistic pedagogy, V. da Feltre used visualization in teaching, dialogue, direct observation of children in nature, hikes, games, the atmosphere was filled with joy of the process of cognition. In addition to classical languages, the school studied new sciences: mathematics, geometry, astronomy, natural history. Great importance was attached to the physical and spiritual education of both boys and girls. According to historians of pedagogy, family schools of the Renaissance were the prototype of future classical gymnasiums.

One of the most important events of that time was the opening of colleges of a new type. Here, for the first time, there is a separation of students according to the level of preparation for seven consecutive classes ( small schools ) , where the front method of teaching is applied. This new organization of academic time began to be called the Parisian college model, which Jesuit colleges will inherit later.

It is common knowledge that the activities of the Jesuits were subordinated to the preservation of the rule of the Catholic Church. To this end, they carried out active work on the education of youth. The Jesuit Order had its own secondary schools, influenced the universities.

In their pedagogical system, the Jesuits were based on the elements of scholastic pedagogy with its installation for memorization, and also used new forms of educational process organization, such as inter-class and intraclass competitions, theatrical performances, competitions, school self-management, incentive and punishment system. The teaching method was rigorously thought out and aimed more at the solidity of knowledge than on volume. To this end, each lesson began with the repetition of the previous one, which contributed to a better mastery of the subject. The students were divided into groups headed by Decurion, the assistant teacher. In these groups, mutual training, repetition and testing of knowledge were carried out. Free, accessible and massively educated made all-encompassing educational activities. To achieve this goal, the Jesuit system of education required specially trained teachers, which became graduates of Jesuit colleges. Teaching the teachers paid great attention to the order, following their professional and spiritual growth.

The basis of the content of education in the Jesuit schools was the study of the humanities: grammar, philosophy, rhetoric, Latin, while maintaining a thorough religious and physical education. The organization and activity of educational institutions was regulated by the Charter of 1599. In it in the section "Knowledge System" the schedule of classes for a week, month, year for pupils of junior and senior branches was clearly prescribed. Detailed instructions determined the order of each lesson, every day, since all educational institutions were of a closed nature (boarding school).

In general, the educational activity of the Jesuit Order was a complete subordination of the student's personality to the requirements of the Catholic Church, taking away from the ideals of humanistic pedagogy of the Renaissance.

The Moscow State deliberately rejected the offer of Western countries to provide educational assistance in order to preserve genuine United States culture and the Orthodox faith. Pedagogy of Orthodoxy reigned in these times on United States soil. Concentration of book culture and education became monasteries. At monasteries (Troitsko-Sergievsky, Kirillo-Belozersky, etc.) clergymen and elders taught the rising generation of the iconic letter, the melody of church chanting, prayer, reading and book handicrafts, giving moral instructions.

Objective socio-economic need brought United States czars to understand the need to develop world and European culture, to study the Grekolatin heritage. At this time, the south-west of Russia was influenced by the Catholic Church. To limit its influence, the fraternities set up their own schools with printing houses for the publication of Orthodox literature. For the same purpose, Metropolitan Peter Mogil founded in 1631 the Kiev-Mohyla College, later the Academy. It had 8 classes, divided into 3 departments: the younger (4 years of study), where they studied Slavic, Greek, Latin, Polish, catechism, arithmetic, singing; secondary (2 years of training), where they mastered piiticism, rhetoric; Senior, where they studied philosophy and theology. The Academy was the first national higher educational institution and retained its status until the opening of Kharkov University in 1804, and then transformed into a purely spiritual academy.

The contribution of the Kyiv-Mohyla Academy to the development of the education system in the Moscow State was significant. A number of brilliant statesmen were educated in it and were the founders of the new type of educational institution - the Greek-Latin school at Andreevsky, Chudov Monasteries (second half of the 17th century), schools for industrial the teachings under the Spassky monastery, the school of the verbal sciences and the Greek language FM Rtishchev and the Slavic-Greek-Latin Academy (1687). Like the organization of fraternal schools in Ukraine, and the creation of new schools in Moscow, the goal was to preserve Orthodoxy from Western reform movements, not allowing heresies and gentiles. In addition to the "seven free arts" ancient languages ​​were studied, Slavic, German and French. The teaching methods were scholastic, i.e. the text was read with the teacher's commentary in Greek or Latin, and the students had to learn, remember it, sometimes they held debates. With the opening of universities in St. Petersburg (1725) and Moscow (1755), the Moscow Slavic-Greek-Latin Academy, having lost the importance of a higher educational institution, is transformed into a spiritual academy.

So, a new type of educational institutions of medieval Russia, the first higher educational institutions in Russia, absorbed many features of fraternal Ukrainian and Belarusian schools. The great Czech teacher J. A. Komensky in his work "Laws of well-maintained schools" (50th of the 17th century) included the rules of the charter of the Lviv school (1586). This once again confirms the value of the experience of schools and their impact on the spread of education in our state and beyond.

Thus, it can be argued that medieval pedagogy is an explicit legacy, a tradition that influences the development of pedagogical theory and practice of subsequent centuries. In this context, the most convincing proof is the pedagogical heritage I. A. Komensky (1592-1670), which, in contrast to scholastic medieval teaching, offered a system of traditional education.

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