Building Social Skills
Social skills at an early age are formed mainly during daily routines that take up most of the time spent by the toddler in a full-time group. They should not be regarded as merely providing the physiological needs of the child. All procedures and
how they are conducted, constitute an important part of the pedagogical process.
In these moments, the opportunity for an individual to communicate with the baby with the child, to be alone with him, to talk. They need to be used to establish a trusting relationship, strengthen the emotional connection between a child and an adult. During daily procedures talking with the child, the adult calls things and actions, explains something, asks, answers questions, tells rhymes - all this contributes to his cognitive-speech development. In the process of washing, dressing, eating, the baby learns various actions: he takes soap and lathers his hands, opens the tap, puts on pantyhose, fastens and unfastens the fasteners on clothes and shoes. Gradually, children learn to wash themselves, dress themselves, etc. By participating with caregivers in everyday life, following the example of adults, they acquire social skills.
The main thing that educators should strive for, carrying out daily procedures, is to create a benevolent atmosphere of cooperation. Teaching children to independence, it is necessary to take into account the individual characteristics of each: do not rush the sluggish, do not offer activities beyond the reach of the baby, do not perform for him what he can do himself.
Parenting and caring for children are very important points for the child and his parents. In the morning, it can be difficult for babies to switch to another situation, to part with their mother. In the evening, some children, passionate about the game, do not want to go home, part with a tutor, friends or a toy. Adults should strive to smooth out these moments, make them pleasant for the baby.
If the teacher at the meeting daily shows individual attention to each family, affectionately welcomes the child, encourages - it helps to ease the tension of the situation, makes it less disturbing. Parents and educators should, at a meeting, exchange information about how the baby slept, ate, in which mood, etc. This will allow adults to adequately take into account the condition of the baby, adjust the daily routine accordingly. For example, a child does not want to part with a toy, which he played at the time when they came for him, refuses to stop playing, ignoring mom. The teacher can invite her to play with the child, take the toy with her. If it turns out that the baby was not eating well in the manger, parents will offer him dinner early.
Affectionately saying goodbye to the child, the teacher prepares him for tomorrow's meeting: "Good-bye, Katya! Tomorrow you will come, we will play again. Until tomorrow!
Undressing and dressing children take a lot of time during the day. These procedures should also be used to develop their own independent actions, so they need to be given the opportunity to practice in a sequence of operations. Kids can watch how other children dress themselves, try to imitate them. By imitating the actions of others, acting on the display of the tutor or following his simple instructions, they learn to take off and put on clothes, unfasten and fasten the fasteners. It is desirable that the fasteners are comfortable (with zips, with Velcro), older children learn to unbutton and button up their buttons.
Helping the kid dress and undress, the caregiver should be calm and patient, do not scold, do not adjust the child, do not commit harsh and rude actions. Everything should be accompanied by affectionate speech, calling the garments, telling what and for what at the moment the adult and the child are doing: "Now we'll take the socks and put them on so that the legs do not freeze, then we'll put on the boots. That's it, well done! Offering the child to try himself to perform this or that action, it is necessary to cheer him up, instilling in the child confidence in the success and help of the adult: "Olechka, look, you have almost learned how to wear mittens. Try to put on the second mitten myself. What, the finger got stuck? No problem, I'll help you a little, and everything will turn out. Good for you!
Caring for the appearance . Adults attract the attention of children to their appearance, delicately induce to use a handkerchief, eliminate disarrangement in clothes and hair: "Anechka, you have got yourself a bow, let's tie it, make a beautiful hairstyle." Helping the kid to tuck in his shirt, comb his hair, blow his nose, you can bring him to the mirror and together rejoice, praise him: "That's a fine fellow, now you're all right." Do not shame the child, attract the attention of other children to the disorder in its appearance. When a baby is happy with clean beautiful clothes, a neat hairdress and feels a sense of disgust from soiled shoes, unkempt hair, he himself willingly asks the adult to help him to remove these shortcomings.
Help to the educator. The most successfully diverse social skills are formed in children in the process of cooperation with adults. Babies observe their activities and, as far as possible, join it. The educator draws their attention to everything that he does himself, tells what he does and for what purpose, invites the children to help him. Kids can help lay the table (bring and lay out spoons, napkins, etc.), clean and wash toys, hang towels.
Caring for things and toys. At the end of the game or lesson, the teacher encourages the kids to put toys together. You need to explain to them that any toy is easy to find, if it is always "in your house". The educator offers to kids to wash toys, to bathe dolls, to wash their clothes.
They learn to hang clothes, put on shoes, put on the hat, scarf and mittens in your locker. To easily find it, the door is usually attached a picture. Let the baby choose her himself. Undressing for a day's sleep, children put clothes on a high chair; put the shoes under the bed. Undressing and dressing the smallest, the teachers also encourage them to help: show where the cap, where to put the boots, put the mittens in place.Rules of etiquette. Adults should demonstrate to their children the rules of etiquette and encourage them to follow them: greet when meeting and say goodbye at parting; say thank you for help, for a gift; use a napkin; wish good appetite and good night; apologize, if inadvertently caused someone trouble; ask permission if you want to join the game of children or take someone's toy. Imitating adults, children gradually learn courtesy, learn the rules of etiquette.
Kids learn to use cutlery, napkins. Before meals, the teacher wants them a pleasant appetite, teaches us to say "thank you" after meal. During the meal, the adult talks softly with the children: he says that they will eat for the first and second, asks if a delicious compote, praises kids.
In the course of daily procedures, the little ones often have moods, discontent, conflicts with adults. The child can refuse to eat or some kind of food, does not want to sit at the table, plays with food, does not want to use a spoon, cup, etc. Some children do not like to change clothes, cry, resist, pick and choose. It happens that the baby refuses to go to bed, gets up or does not sleep for a long time, calls his mother, cries. Many children do not know how to ask for toilet, refuse to sit down on the potty, do not like to wash, brush their hair, brush their teeth, etc.
Usually, teachers explain the reasons for this behavior of the child by his spoiled family, negative character traits, the desire to attract the attention of an adult.
In order to understand the true reasons for his refusal or resistance to the educator, it is important to imagine the feelings and experiences of the child in this situation. The refusal to perform certain routine procedures is most often associated with concomitant negative feelings (cold pot, uncomfortable pose, unusually hard food, uncomfortable clothing, etc.), experiences caused by indecisive treatment of an adult (suppression of the desire for independence, interruption of interesting activities, not taking into account the individual pace of activity, etc.). For example, a child is uncomfortable with the feeling of cold water, he feels pain from getting soap in the eyes or nose, it irritates the indelicate touch of the adult to the face, sudden hasty movements. It is difficult for him to cope with negative experiences, besides, he can not yet understand and express them in words, but they act as a signal to the adult about the discomfort, emotional distress experienced by the kid, and they should not be attributed to "spoiling", harmfulness *, indiscipline.
Consider various ways to resolve such situations from the point of view of an authoritarian and personality-oriented style of interaction between adults and children.
With an authoritarian style of interaction, the adult resorts to coercion (forcible feeding, washing, sleeping, dressing); threats ("you will not eat - you will not go for a walk"); prohibitions ( can not get up from the pot ) and punishments.
Personal-oriented interaction involves other methods: affectionate persuasions, explanations; use of suitable songs, poems, stories; playing the procedure; encouraging the child's autonomy; follow the pace of its actions.
Authoritarian methods can be effective from the point of view of the adult, however from the point of view of the child's experiences they cause emotional discomfort, resentment, fright, distrust to the educator. It should also be borne in mind that the negative consequences of coercive methods of conducting routine procedures (the occurrence of a persistent lack of appetite, constipation, enuresis, hydrophobia, etc.) are possible. The methods of personality-oriented interaction require special efforts, patience and creativity from the adult, but they cause positive emotions, a sense of confidence, confidence in the adult, and promote the development of the child's independence.
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