Forms and means of educationForms of upbringing is an external expression of the joint activity of pupils and educators in solving educational problems. There are several classifications of forms of upbringing.
In terms of coverage: individual, group, class, mass.
On the scope: extracurricular, extracurricular.
According to the composition of the participants: class, joint with parents and the public, school, interscholastic.
In duration: single (holiday, competition), systematic (a system of class hours), long (elective).
By the nature of the activity of pupils: shows, competitions, classes, projects, collective affairs, trainings.
By the nature and the objective side of the activity of the student: cognitive activity, problem-value communication, leisure activities, gaming, social creativity, artistic creativity, work activity, sporting activities, tourism and local lore.The means of education are relatively independent sources of personality formation, intermediaries between the educator and the pupil. There are various reasons for their organization:
1) types of activities (work, play);
2) items, things (toys, computer games);3) instruments, equipment, including sports equipment and implements, instruments (including musical instruments), teaching aids, computers, information and telecommunication networks, hardware-software and audio-visual means, printed and electronic educational and information resources, and other material objects necessary for the organization of educational activities;
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4) works and phenomena of spiritual and material culture (art, social life);
5) objects and phenomena of animate and inanimate nature;
6) specific procedures for educational work (matinees, meetings, classes).
As you can see, the group of forms of upbringing intersects with groups of methods, as well as the means of education. This testifies to the vagueness of these concepts and the undevelopedness of the corresponding theory.
Toys - one of the most important educational tools for a given age. This is the object intended for the game. It is an instrument of socialization of the child,
the intermediary between him and the adult world, part of the child's play reality. The content and forms of toys are in direct connection with the social system of society, with the level of its culture. It is known that a child identifies himself with a toy, entering into personal relationships with her. Influence on the child has not only the appearance or function of the toy, but, mainly, its hidden essence.
The value of a child's toy:
• Through it in a concentrated form, the values of culture and the experience of generations are transferred;
• it underlies the formation of a national mentality;
• is a specific means of information impact on the child.
Classification of toys for developmental purposes:
• figurative (images of animals, dolls, soldiers, cars);
• public and industrial and technical (toy tools, weapons)
• constructive (various designers and prefabricated toys).
Types of toys can also be classified based on the relationship with different types of games: story, didactic, sports, games-entertainment.
Possible criteria for examining children's toys:
• Culturally appropriate;
• The semantic.
From the point of view of upbringing, the last criterion seems most significant. The semantic criterion of the toy (the criterion of the spiritual and moral sense of the toy) is specified by such questions to the toy as: what values it translates; contributes to the development of conscience, the ability to distinguish between good and evil; does it encourage children to follow moral norms?
A toy, about which we give a negative answer to the last two questions, is an anti-toy . It can be impeccable by other criteria (for example, not having small details or sharp edges, performed according to all laws of aesthetics), but being insecure in a spiritually moral way, for example, inducing destructive desires, contributing to the development of nervousness and aggressiveness of the child.
Interrelation of results, methods, forms and means of education
The methods of upbringing are the ways to achieve the goal of education. From the principle of the complex nature of the upbringing process, the complex structure of the pupil's personality, it follows that the educator always uses the system of methods of upbringing, in which methods relating to each of the groups-persuasion, training, and stimulation-should be presented. Nevertheless, the toolkit of each teacher is unique. It is determined by a number of circumstances:
• the existing system of relations in society;
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• personal characteristics of the teacher himself;
• features of individual students and the contingent in general;
• specific educational tasks that need to be addressed, as well as the nature of the qualities, skills, attitudes of schoolchildren.
When choosing a method, form or means of education, it is important to separate strategic and tactical educational tasks and operational ones.
Strategic objectives - flow from the general goal of education. They are asked from the outside and determine the final, rather remote results of educational activity. Strategic tasks are solved by organizing the entire system of education in school.
Tactical tasks , which can be called organizational and methodological tasks, are, as it were, subtasks of a specific strategic task and sometimes refer to its individual aspects or stages. Examples of such tasks are the tasks of educating a certain group of relationships and qualities of schoolchildren, their motivation. Organizational and methodological educational tasks are determined in the process of transformation of the generalized goal of education, its division into separate areas of educational activity: aesthetic education, prevention of harmful habits of children, etc. To solve such problems, a system of methods of upbringing, which are combined into a methodology, program or pedagogical technology .
Operational tasks - tasks that are current, coming, arising before the teacher at a particular moment of his activity. These are tasks to resolve situations, incidents, conflicts. Most often they are solved on the basis of educational methods.
The effectiveness of education is largely due to its forms. It is established that individual and group forms of upbringing are more effective than mass ones. However, the advantage of mass forms of upbringing is the ability, under changing conditions, to quickly revise educational procedures, promptly change the tactics of solving pedagogical tasks.
Individual education is quite effective, but it is highly cost-effective from an economic point of view. In addition, education in the group allows to solve educational problems, fundamentally unresolved in the form of individual education, associated with social education (Table 6.2).
Common reasons for choosing methods, forms and means of education
Age features of children
The level of team formation
Individual and personal characteristics of children
Level of pedagogical qualification
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