Game in the system of other types of children's activities...

Playing in the system of other types of children's activities

With the idea that the game is not the only activity of children, all the researchers who somehow developed the problems of children's age agree. Productive in terms of scientific and practical study was the recognition by the domestic science of playing the status of the leading activity of pre-school children (LS Vygotsky, LN Leontiev, DB Elkonin, LA Wenger, VS Mukhina, LF Obukhova).

According to Vygotsky (1966), the game is the source of personal development and creates a zone of proximal development: "In essence, through playing activity and the child moves. Only in this sense, the game can be called the activity of the leading one, i.e. defining the development of the child . At the same time, the scientist categorically objects to the recognition of her as the predominant type of activity, since in basic life situations the child behaves diametrically opposite to the way he behaves in the game: in the game, the child's actions are subordinate to the meaning, and in real life, in the opinion of L. S Vygotsky, dominate the meaning. This idea is also continued by AN Leont'ev, emphasizing not quantitative but qualitative indicators of leading activity. Leading we call this activity, in connection with which the most important changes occur in the child's psyche and inside of which mental processes develop that prepare the child's transition to a new, higher stage of his development. " . In addition to all the other significant benefits (and they must be attributed to the desire of researchers not only to explain the game, based on the already existing mental characteristics of the child, but also from the emergence and development of the game itself, to understand those psychic features that appear and form in the child during the period leading role of this activity), a consequence of the approach to the game, planned by Vygotsky, AN Leontiev and other scientists, was the opportunity to justify its organic connection with other kinds of children's activities STI - teaching and work


Deserves, for example, a certain attention undertaken by S. S. Molohavym (1929) attempt to establish a connection between game and work. Considering the features of the similarity of the playing and working activity of children, he pointed out that: "(a) these processes are in the active relationship of the child with the environment, determined by it both in its origin and in its course; b) they involve the whole children's organism, its nervous pathways and centers, its motor and secretory systems; c) they leave a certain trace in the child's body, leading to the registration of his personality . The difference between game and work lies in their social role. The game is an approximate-adaptive process, and labor is life-adaptive, in connection with which their ultimate goals turn out to be different: in the game, adaptation serves the purposes of orientation in the environment, in labor-the goals of immediate life-saving. The significance of the game, from the point of view of SS Molozhavy, is determined by the formation in it of such qualities of personality that will be in demand in the further social life and labor activity. PP Blonskii (1999) will later note that this theory, while revealing the influence of the environment on the games of children and the significance of games for their social development, is nevertheless not fully completed, and some of its provisions are rather unclear.

0 Gradual development of the game in the work activity reminded teachers and parents of A. S. Makarenko: "Between the game and the work there is not such a big difference, as many think ... In every game there is primarily a working effort and effort of thought. A game without effort, a game without activity is always a bad game ... at this point the game is very similar to the work of ". A.S. Makarenko believed that in good games, the love of work and responsibility are brought up faster and better, the habit of understanding and taking into account the meaning of the words should and can not .

Yu. P. Azarov, including in the game activities a variety of forms (this and club classes, and sports competitions, and theatrical improvisation, and formalized role-playing competition), writes that the game and work seem incompatible because they are actually polar and as if contradict each other: voluntariness dominates in the game, and labor is most often obligatory. The moment of entry into the game depends on the desires of the children, and the entry into the labor activity is based on the debt. However, the scientist notes, "labor without elements of voluntariness and desire is often a burden to a child, as well as a game, if it becomes a compulsory duty. The game ... only outwardly seems carefree and easy. But in fact, she imperiously demands that the player give her a maximum of his energy, intelligence, endurance. It sometimes becomes truly hard work and through effort leads to pleasure . At the same time, the "categoricity" labor (regardless of the desire of the individual labor must have a certain result) is often mitigated by the emergence of interest and pleasure, and then in the labor activity are found some "accompanying" elements that are close in structure and content to those that underlie the game - voluntariness, interest, obsession.

Of course, certain differences, and very significant, exist between gaming and learning activities. They primarily concern their structures. So, the structure of learning activity is "purposeful, effective, mandatory, arbitrary" , Writes LI Bozhovich (1995), while also noting that in the game the child also exhibits some features of arbitrariness, overcoming obstacles and many of his immediate desires. But in the game he does it in the name of an even stronger desire to fulfill the game rules he has adopted, in particular, the rules of the role assumed. In this regard, the game can be regarded as a prior learning activity peculiar school of development of skills of arbitrary behavior, a successful "ending" which allows the child to adequately respond to a variety of requirements that arise before him, which do not always coincide with his immediate desires.

Distinguish between the educational and gaming activities, NS. Pantina points to the formation of abilities, knowledge and skills as the main goal of educational activity. At the same time, the researcher believes, the game also brings up a certain group of abilities necessary for the child to be included in the educational activity. Differences between these types of activities NS. Pantina sees, among other things, in contrast to educational and gaming problems, as well as the types of connections that exist between the conditions of the tasks assigned and those final products that are obtained as a result. In educational tasks, conditions are specified, usually by means of texts, where different sign structures are involved ... In game tasks, various kinds of things are set as fixed assets, objects - toys and various game material, specially processed in accordance with that or a different game. The fundamental difference in these means, in turn, leads to a fundamental difference in the activity itself. In educational tasks, the child ... performs formal operations ... according to the laws of action with signs. In gaming tasks, there is a practical action with things, objects ... If in the early stages of ontogeny the child is able to understand only tasks that require practical action and end with objective transformations, then in the period of preschool childhood a gradual transition from gaming to learning activity is carried out by introducing new means of constructing the elements of activity.

Thus, the game, teaching and work as the basic and interconnected types of present and forthcoming activity of the evolving human personality simultaneously act as both main steps "stairs" life. Gaming activities for a long time prepares the transition of the child to new, higher levels of development, thereby acting as a kind of bridge, an intermediate link on the approaches to learning and work.

However, do not forget about the self-worthy of the children's game, its contribution not only to the future (tomorrow's day), but to the present children. The game is important not only as a preparation for teaching and work; it is the freest and most natural form of manifestation of children's activity, in which the surrounding world is already realized, the world is being explored, and a wide open space opens up for personal creativity and personal activity. Therefore child's play always exists simultaneously in two temporal dimensions: in the present and future (OS Gazman, 1988). On the one hand, it gives a momentary joy, serves the satisfaction of the urgent urgent needs. On the other hand, it is always directed to the future, because in it some life situations are modeled or properties, qualities, states, abilities, abilities, necessary personalities are fixed for the performance of social, professional, creative functions.

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