Gender differences - Pedagogical psychology

Gender differences

In humans, as we noted, in addition to gender differences, there are also gender differences. In their formation, an important role is played not only by biological, but also by socio-cultural factors. The socio-cultural matrix, which contains and fixes these differences, always has certain clearly expressed features. In traditional culture, male and female behavioral patterns are in many respects diametrically opposed in their qualities. So, if typical male behavior is characterized by activity, aggressiveness, decisiveness, rationality, then for the female, on the contrary, passivity, indecision, dependence, conformity, lack of clearly expressed logical thinking, great emotionality, social balance. Probably, the person developing harmoniously should follow these models, otherwise the conflict with the society awaits her.

Hence, the difference in the assessment of one of the main factors of cognitive development - the manifestations of research behavior - is conditioned by gender differences. If we follow these socio-cultural canons, then the orientation toward unlimited research behavior in men is a desirable phenomenon, while for women it is optional, or even negative. The psychologist AN Poddyakov, who devoted much attention to the problem of cultural resistance to research behavior, notes, referring to his own research and the work of other scientists, that this opposition is enshrined in many spheres of culture: educational traditions, games, literary works.

So, for example, in the study of RM Rigol, who analyzed the content of various children's tales, it was shown that the research behavior of adult characters, especially women, is mostly punished, and the research behavior of children is mainly rewarded. The search activity of male characters, with deviant behavior (fairy-tale "fools") is rewarded also or not very strongly.

Similar features of our culture are reflected in the games and toys offered to boys and girls. For example, in VE Kagan's study, features of spatial behavior in the games of children of different sex were discovered and highlighted. It is noticed that in the older preschool age the games of girls are more often unfolded in a limited space: they lay out in a relatively small area in front of themselves all their "riches" - dolls, rags, etc. They are quite a small corner. Games of boys are usually built in a fundamentally different way. Boys capture significantly larger spaces: they run after each other, throw objects at the target, etc. If there is not enough space for boys to play in the horizontal plane, they learn the vertical: they climb up to the cabinet, climb ladders or trees.

Specialists in gender psychology also noted that in the game rooms of boys, or just in the boy's toy arsenal, toys are more than girls. Girls' toys are less diverse. All this can not but affect the manifestations of research behavior, and therefore, on the cognitive development of children of different sexes.

Psychologist L. V. Popova, studying the characteristics of gifted boys and girls, notes that parents and teachers usually do not encourage girls to show activity, curiosity, independence, risk appetite. Traditional parents, according to her, are more likely to spend time and money on the education of gifted sons, for not gifted daughters.

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