GENERAL BASES OF EDUCATION
• features, inconsistencies and patterns of upbringing;
• Modern models of upbringing;
• methods and methods of education;
be able to :
• isolate the actual problems of education;
• be able to analyze pedagogical texts;
• basic pedagogical concepts;
• a technique for analyzing the pedagogical situation.
The essence of education
The concept of "upbringing", a national identity of upbringing
Education of its original meaning leads from the Old Slavonic word "feed" - to feed, which means feeding, nurturing the younger generation.
Education should be viewed as a historical and social phenomenon, the essence of which is in the transfer of the experience of the older generation to the younger generation, and as the process of organized influence on the personality that is conditioned by the needs of society and the state and occurs in social institutions.
Education as a process has its own characteristics.
1. Education is a multifactorial process, the result of which influence on the personality is due to a combination of many factors: heredity, the environment, the interests and needs of the individual. A significant role in the upbringing is played by the educator's personality
as a carrier of historical experience, social senses and values.
2. Parenting is a two-sided subject-subject process in which the educator and pupil interact, resulting in changes both in the personality of the pupil and the educator.
3. Parenting is an ambiguous process. The means and methods of education, by virtue of the uniqueness and uniqueness of each educational situation, do not always give the expected result.
4. Parenting is the process of sharing information. Education can not be separated from education and education. This is a single process, as a result of which the child is introduced into the world of culture, passes on to him experience and knowledge. Knowledge of the art of information transmission is one of the necessary conditions for the success of educational activities.
5. Parenting is a long and continuous process. Fundamentals of character, personality orientation are laid down in childhood, but the process of personality formation, its improvement and self-improvement continues throughout the life course.
6. The process of education is inseparable from self-education. Each person, in order to take place as a person, must be capable of self-development. Therefore, education should be based on the positive activity of the personality, its ability and aspiration for self-improvement.
The upbringing of the personality is influenced by the environment as well - it creates conditions for the development and formation of the personality, and heredity, through which a person receives certain inclinations. Development of the potential of the personality, the formation of character and direction occurs in the process of human interaction with the environment, where the activity of the individual plays an essential role. The main forms of interaction between the individual and the environment are communication and activity. Education - a process of subject-subject interaction , aimed at the development of certain personal qualities, which are set by various institutions of society. Subjects of the educational process are: educator, pupil, social group, institution, organization.
Education is carried out in a cultural environment and is accompanied by the accumulation and comprehension of the content, means, forms and methods of upbringing, which are tested in specific educational practice.
Each nation has its own particular ideal of man and requires the reproduction of this ideal in individuals. The ideal is determined by social life and develops together with the cultural and historical development of the people. The national identity of upbringing is reflected, in the opinion of the United States classicist K. D. Ushinsky, in the public idea. The origins of the social idea - in the historical past of the people, its traditions and culture. Ushinsky argues that every popular education has its own "educational power". Investigating the national originality of education, he concludes that every person is a product of his time, education should be carried out in accordance with his people and with his time. There is no universal system of public education. Moreover, KD Ushinsky argued that education only then will have the greatest effect when it is carried out on its own national soil, in the conditions of its national culture. Borrowing of other educational traditions is possible, but only in the form of separate forms that are consistent with folk and social traditions.
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