Gnoseological regularities, Psychological regularities...

Epistemological regularities

1. Learning outcomes (within certain limits) are directly proportional to the ability of students to learn.

2. The productivity of education (within certain limits) is directly proportional to the volume of the students' learning (cognitive) activity.

3. The productivity of learning knowledge, skills (within certain limits) is directly proportional to the volume of practical application of knowledge, skills.

4. Mental development of students is directly proportional to the assimilation of the volume of interrelated knowledge, skills, experience of creative activity (I. Ya. Lerner).

5. Learning outcomes depend on the ability to include the subject under study in those relationships, the carrier of which is the quality of the object being studied.

6. Learning outcomes depend on the regularity and systematic nature of pupils' homework.

7. The productivity of learning knowledge, skills is in direct proportion to the need to learn.

8. The productivity of creative thinking is improved by using increased learning steps, and the effectiveness of verbal memorization of knowledge (within certain limits) is improved by using reduced portions of material.

9. The productivity of assimilation depends on the level of learning problems, the use of the method of independent discoveries, on the intensity of students' inclusion in the resolution of feasible and meaningful tasks for them.

Psychological patterns

1. The productivity of training (within certain limits) is directly proportional to the interest of students in learning activity.

2. The productivity of training (within certain limits) is directly proportional to the learning opportunities of students.

3. The productivity of training (within certain limits) is directly proportional to the number of training exercises.

4. The productivity of training (within certain limits) is directly proportional to the intensity of the training.

5. The productivity of training (within certain limits) is directly proportional to the level of cognitive activity of students.

6. The productivity of training (within certain limits) is directly proportional to the level and persistence of students' attention.

7. The results of mastering a particular educational material depend on the students' ability to master specific knowledge, skills, and their individual inclinations.

8. Productivity of training depends on the level, strength, intensity and features of thinking.

9. The productivity of training (within certain limits) depends on the level of memory development.

10. Learning is directly proportional to learning.

11. The productivity of training (within certain limits) is directly proportional to the performance of students.

12. In adolescence, school performance deteriorates: at 11-15 years it is on average 25% lower than at the age of 6-10 and 16-17 years.

13.3Action of Jost. Of the two associations of the same strength, of which one is older than the other, with subsequent repetition, it is better to update the old association.

14. The Law of Jost. Other things being equal, less samples are needed to achieve the learning criterion when learning the material by distributed learning than by concentrated learning (see Figure 33). 15. The urgency of memorizing the studied material depends on the method of reproduction of this material (E. R. Hilgard) (see Figure 34).

Fig. 33. The Jost Law

Fig. 34. Dependence of the memory strength on the playback method

16. Productivity of activities depends on the level of skills and abilities.

17. The number of repetitions has a strong influence on the productivity of training (von Kube).

18. The percentage of retention of learned learning material is inversely proportional to the volume of this material (G. Ebbinghaus).

19. Other things being equal, the effectiveness of distributed learning of the material is higher than the effectiveness of concentrated learning (I. Kain, R. Willy) (see Figure 35).

20. The number of repetitions and practices increases the productivity of training: Yi-It (1 - (1 - k/c ) n), where Yiwu - information learned by the students; It is the complete information contained in the text or message; k - is the constant denoting the throughput of short-term memory (0.06 k & lt; 0.08) ; with is a constant denoting the throughput of long-term memory (0.4 with & lt; 0 <8 ); n - the number of repetitions (von Cuba).

21. The productivity of training depends on the orientation toward success (see Figure 36).

22. The productivity of the educational process depends on the degree of meaningfulness of the educational material (see Figure 37).

Efficiency of concentrated and distributed learning

Fig. 35. The effectiveness of concentrated and distributed learning

Dependence of the productivity of learning on the orientation toward success

Fig. 36. Dependence of the productivity of learning on the orientation to success

Dependence of the productivity of learning on the degree of meaningfulness of knowledge

Fig. 37. Dependence of the productivity of training on the degree of meaningfulness of knowledge

Dependence of the efficiency of education on quality and repetition frequency

Fig. 38. Dependence of the productivity of education on quality and frequency of repetitions

Often a new is a well-forgotten old. Today, as well as centuries ago, psychological regularities hold back and rigidly regulate the educational process. Where they are not paid attention, deterioration is imminent. Take at least the recently spread "dipping": it's so tempting to beat chemistry or, say, a story in a month or more, not to return to it. The history of the school knows a lot of such attempts: as soon as the previous failures were forgotten, there were immediately wishing to go on this tempting path. However, the result is always the same - the effectiveness of training is reduced, the material is very quickly forgotten: this is confirmed by the law discovered in 1897 by Jost, and numerous subsequent checks and revisions of this law by Cain, Willy, Shardakov, and many other theorists and practitioners. With distributed (extended) learning, the end results are always higher than with a concentrated "dip". You have to study constantly.

thematic pictures

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