2.2. Aims and objectives of the psychology of nonviolence
Nonviolence, acting as the fundamental principle of humanistic psychology, even within the framework of this direction has not become the subject of special studies. The psychology of nonviolence as a specific branch of humanistic psychology arose and was formed in our country only in the last decades of the twentieth century. There are very few publications on this subject. Of the foreign approaches, the most assertive of non-violence is the theory of assertiveness, as well as the theory of non-violent communication of the American scientist M. Rosenberg. In domestic psychology, attention is drawn, above all, to the work of Yu. M. Orlov, in which psychology of coercion and the psychology of non-violence are revealed. Gradually, the problems associated with the study of the position of nonviolence began to interest an ever wider circle of domestic psychologists. Conferences are held devoted to various aspects of the psychology of nonviolence, books on this subject have been published, the thesis has been defended.
As for assertiveness, the work of Czech scientists V. Cappon and T. Nowak  contributed to the popularization of this concept, first introduced by American psychologists. From the point of view of the psychology of nonviolence, this concept is interesting for analyzing the strategy and tactics of human behavior in situations of interaction with other people, when the solution of one's own problems is carried out with the maximum consideration of the needs and goals of other people. Because of this, as noted by V. Capponi and T. Novak, "an assertive person does not act to the detriment of anyone, respecting the rights of others, but does not allow" rope ". He achieves the desired goal without harming others. He achieves his, without manipulating opponents through feelings of guilt or in any other way from the category of emotional blackmail. He knows how to persuade others to give him help or courtesy. He does not shut himself up, receiving a refusal in what he, in fact, did not have the right to expect. In a conflict of interests, he is able to agree and find a compromise solution that satisfies both sides [4, p. 163-164].
Special attention from the point of view of the psychology of nonviolence deserves work on non-violent communication (non-violent communication) M. Rosenberg, which sets a clear algorithm for mastering a special language - "the language of a giraffe". On this concept, we specifically dwell in more detail in Section 2.3.3 of this chapter.First of all, I would like to note in the domestic psychology the work of Yu. M. Orlov [8, 9], where an attempt is made to describe the specific mechanisms of non-violent interaction from the standpoint of the psychology of controlling the behavior of another person. The author defines two basic tasks of management: to cause in the controlled person the behavior desirable for the steward; eliminate unwanted behavior for the steward or his signs.
In accordance with this, two paradigms are singled out in the solution of the indicated administrative tasks, which are designated by the author as a paradigm of violence and the paradigm of nonviolence.
The paradigm of violence: if you do not perform the action, then there will be an unpleasant emotion. In this case, the anticipation of a bad experience is a stimulant of the behavior of a controlled person. This is obvious violence, coercion, which is subjected to the scheme: if you do the right action, then there will be no unpleasant emotion. For the performer, this management paradigm creates a threat situation for failure. Consequently, in a situation of violence, any, even pleasant behavior, desirable to the steward, for the performer becomes the behavior of getting rid of the expected unpleasant emotion.
The paradigm of nonviolence : the formula of nonviolence, as opposed to the paradigm of violence, relies on a positive emotion. In other words: "If you do the right thing for the steward, you will have a good emotional state". The consent of the performer anticipates a positive experience, the refusal of the performer is not fixed in any reaction of the steward; the performer is given to his fate, certain circumstances.
Thus, Yu. M. Orlov is trying to write down the uniqueness of violent and non-violent action depending on the emotional reward that a person fulfilling the will of another person expects. It is emphasized that violent actions are always oriented toward punishment, experiencing negative emotions in case of disobedience; nonviolent action, on the contrary, is aimed at actualization of positive experiences in the event of its fulfillment, which is what other people require from the person (the ruler). It should be noted that this formula can work in almost all areas of human life.
In accordance with this formula, any communicative utterance, for example, parents, teachers, educators in relation to children, can be evaluated. In particular, the simple phrase of a parent addressed to his child: "Do not walk a puddle" - can be constructed in a violent and non-violent way. In the first case: "Do not go around the puddle, and then catch a cold, get sick" (actualization of negative emotions and accordingly negative consequences). In the second case: "Do not walk through the puddle, then you will not catch cold and you will not get sick, you will be healthy" (actualization of positive experiences, respectively, positive consequences). Or: "Do the lessons, otherwise you'll get a deuce." - Teach your lessons, you will know the material well, you will get a good mark ". This list of constructing violent and non-violent phrases can be continued.
The paradigms of coercive and nonviolent action suggested by Yu. M. Orlov are simple, understandable and accessible for use in real practice, in the process of communicative interaction of adults and children.
So, what are the goals and objectives of the psychology of nonviolence?
The goal of the psychology of nonviolence is the study of the psychological mechanisms of non-violent interaction of man with other people, nature, society, the world as a whole.
As specific problems of the psychology of nonviolence, we can distinguish the following:
- the study of the general structure and features of the position of nonviolence, the specificity of its manifestation at different age stages;
- the identification of psychological characteristics of nonviolent actions and non-violent communication;
- the study of the psychological conditions of the person's acceptance of the position of nonviolence;
- the identification of the relationship between the position of nonviolence and the general cognitive-personal development of a particular individual at different stages of his ontogenetic development;
- highlight the psychological conditions of actualization of the ability to non-violent interaction in different categories of people;
- the problem of studying the possibilities of the psychology of nonviolence in the context of ensuring the security of personal development is becoming especially urgent at the moment.
As you can see, the range of problems of the psychology of nonviolence is quite wide and requires the involvement of efforts of psychologists of various profiles.
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