Coordination of the components of the learning process on the basis of constructivism
In the modern practice of European higher education, the so-called "CA-concept", or "constructivist harmonization concept" developed by J. Biggs, has become widespread. This concept is focused primarily on optimizing the educational process of the university (namely: evaluation, teaching and expected learning outcomes). As the name implies, the concept identifies two aspects: constructivist and coherent.
Constructivist aspect concepts define the ideas of the psychological theory of constructivism. Constructivism is built on this vision of the learning process, which is aimed at the learner, not the teacher, and emphasizes the importance of constructing students' own meanings and knowledge. One of the basic provisions of constructivism is that knowledge is not given to the learner, but created (constructed) by them  . In the "CA concept," according to J. Biggs, the "constructivist aspect" manifests itself in the notion that students construct meaning through the relevant activity of the teaching. Thus, the meaning is not something passed on or transferred from the teacher to the student, but is created by the student independently. Teaching only exercises the catalysis of the doctrine .
The negotiating dimension is represented by the activities of the teacher who forms the learning environment that supports the activities of the teaching leading to the achievement of the expected learning outcomes. The main thing here is that the components of the teaching system (ie the activities of the teacher), in particular teaching methods and means of evaluation, are coordinated and combined with the activity of the exercise (that is, the activities of the student oriented to achieve the expected results).
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As it follows from the scheme (Figure 1.3), the main place in the educational process based on constructivist coordination is expected learning outcomes . For the formation of the latter, the subjects listed in the curriculum disciplines are used, the understanding of which is fixed by the student in the form of certain goals, to solve certain problems & quot ;, to have a certain skill etc. The training is presented in the form of teaching/learning activities which helps the student to be able to be characterized using target terms. Evaluation assumes the choice of: 1) forms (written exams, presentations, workshops, etc.) and 2 ) criteria used to set the end mark.
Fig. 1.3. Structural diagram of a learning process based on constructivist harmonization
Thus, in the implementation of the CA concepts there are four steps:
1) determining the expected learning outcomes;
2) choosing the nature of the teaching/learning activity that will lead to the expected learning outcomes;
3) evaluation of real learning outcomes in order to understand how close they are to the expected;
4) reaching the end mark.
At the first stage the implementation of the learning process should be clearly defined with what students should study. As J. observes, Biggs, first of all, it is necessary to separate the functional knowledge from the declarative. Declarative knowledge - all facts, information and experiences that are part of what we know [81. 160] - are called so because they can be reported, "declare in oral or written form. Students need to apply declarative knowledge to perform the job, i.e. to make this knowledge work. Most students alone can not cope with the task of translating declarative knowledge into functional ones. In this regard, the first step in choosing goals is to clarify what level of understanding is required from the student in each of the topics included in the curriculum, because it is understanding that translates declarative knowledge into functional and, therefore, competent behavior in one or another professional situation, in one or another professional context.
The second stage involves choosing the nature of the activity of teaching/learning. Just lectures and tutorials, according to J. Biggs, to achieve the necessary level of understanding is not enough. It is necessary to intensify the activity of the exercise, the means of which can be: the organization of an interactive group educational process outside the classroom; orientation of the educational process to work; the use of the learning opportunities of the environment, etc. For this, one can also use a wide range of effective teaching strategies known in the practice of higher education: direct instruction; discussions; work with small groups; group learning activity; problem training; research activity of students; role-playing games; case studies; written works, etc.
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The third stage of the implementation of the learning process in accordance with the CA-concept - Evaluation of the learning outcomes of students. In the opinion of J. Biggs, no single factor hinders to such an extent the construction of "agreed learning" as an incorrect approach to evaluation. J. Biggs proposes to make evaluation tasks a mirror image of the expected learning outcomes.
In Fig. 1.4 in a schematic form, a moment is displayed that is important for the organization of the learning process: for the teacher, the evaluation is the final element in the chain of events taking place in teaching/learning, whereas for the student, this is the initial element.
Fig. 1.4. Implementation scheme CA-concepts and the "backward wave" effect
The dashed arrow in Fig. 1.4 reflects the process that J. Biggs called the "back wave" (backwash): "Students study what they think will be evaluated. This is a backward wave, when the evaluation determines what and how students are studying - determines more than the curriculum. In a poorly coordinated system, where appraisal assignments do not reflect goals, this manifests itself in an unacceptable superficial teaching [163. 140].
If it is not possible to prevent a reverse wave, mount it, - suggests J. Biggs. - Students always try to anticipate assessment assignments and study what, in their opinion, meets these tasks. But if the assessment tasks reflect the curriculum, then the problem is no longer there. Students learn what they need to learn [163. P. 210]. The idea of the backward wave - A key element of the CA concepts and a strong argument in its favor.
Suggested CA-concept the approach to evaluation is presented as something more than a traditional criterion estimate, which coordinates the assessment with objectives. CA concept includes a criterial evaluation, but differs from it in two aspects: first, in that the goals are formulated in terms of expected learning outcomes, which then adequately determine the evaluation tasks; secondly, the subsequent coordination of teaching methods with expected learning outcomes and evaluation assignments.
The notion of the decisive role of the appraisal in the CA concept should not minimize the importance of other components of the learning process, in particular, expected learning outcomes and teaching/learning activities. In a broad sense, constructivist coordination involves the establishment of a balance between all components of the educational process: 1) the professional goals of teachers; 2) the desires and needs of students; 3) the curriculum; 4) the training methods used; 5) evaluation procedures; 6) psychological and social climate in the audience; 7) psychological and social climate of the university.
Each of these components should serve a common purpose. Any imbalance "leads to imperfect teaching and superficial teaching. The discrepancy manifests itself in the absence of logic and unfulfilled expectations, in our practical actions that contradict what we say [163. P. 26].
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