Health, Structure and basic properties of the nervous...

Health

According to Jaspers, to give an accurate definition of the concept of "health" - a task that can not be solved by adhering to the notion of human nature as a fundamentally unclosed being. Nevertheless, some definitions of general health can be cited. The earliest of these is the definition of Alkmeon, who lived around 500 BC: health is the harmony of oppositely directed forces. This definition still has its supporters today. The Roman philosopher Cicero estimated health as the correct ratio of different states of mind. The Stoics and the Epicureans highly appreciated health, contrasting it with enthusiasm, striving for everything immoderate and dangerous. The Epicureans believed that health is full satisfaction, provided that all needs are met moderately. Stoics perceived all passion, every manifestation of feeling as a disease. Their doctrine of morality was to a large extent a kind of therapy aimed at the destruction of mental illnesses and the establishment of a healthy ataraxia (serenity of the spirit).

Some psychiatrists viewed health as the ability to realize the "natural and innate potential of the human vocation". Health was understood as finding a man of his independence, the realization of the I, a full and harmonious inclusion in the community of people. So, health is a physical and mental state of integrity, the stable functioning of all organs and the development of internal processes that promote human life.

Structure and basic properties of the nervous system

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The nervous system is the aggregate of all elements of the nervous tissue of organisms interconnected and providing a response to external and internal stimuli. Careful study of the animal's body structure, number, quality and distribution of various senses, the structure of the nervous system gives us a perfect image of the inner and outer world of the organism.

I am. Ikskyul begins with the study of lower organisms and extends it consistently to all forms of organic life. In a sense, he refuses to divide into lower and higher forms of life. Life is perfect everywhere, both in small and in great. Every organism, even the lowest one, is not only adapted in a certain sense, but is also fully adapted to its surroundings. In accordance with its anatomical structure, it has a system of receptors and a system of effectors. Without the cooperation and balancing of these two systems, the body can not survive. The receptor system, through which biological species receives external stimuli, and the system of effectors through which they react to these stimuli, are always closely intertwined.

The simplest elements of the brain (the brain and spinal cord) are neurons and glial cells. The total number of neurons in the central nervous system (hereinafter referred to as the CNS) is about 50 billion. The junctions between neurons are called synapses, and the process of transmitting information in these places is called synaptic transmission.

In the structural plan, the CNS and the peripheral nervous system are usually isolated. The first includes the brain: the brain stem and the spinal cord. All the rest refers to the peripheral nervous system, which is usually divided into somatic and vegetative (autonomous). The somatic system consists of nerves that go to the sensory organs and from the motor organs. Reasoning about the terms of causality, we can assert that any physical effects on the psyche are carried out through the brain. The body does not directly affect the soul, but only through the brain. To speak of the body as a whole as something related to the soul is possible only in a causal sense - bearing in mind the existence of certain ways leading to those points of the brain that serve as targets of somatic influences.

The belief that consciousness is produced by the brain, of course, is not entirely arbitrary. It is based on a large number of observations in clinical and experimental neurology and psychiatry, which indicate a close connection between various aspects of consciousness and the physiological or pathological processes in the brain, such as trauma, tumor or infection. For example, brain contusion or oxygen deficiency can lead to loss of consciousness. A tumor or trauma to the temporal lobe results in a distortion of conscious processes that are different from those caused by prefrontal lesions. Infectious brain diseases or the use of certain drugs with psychoactive properties (hypnotics, stimulants or psychedelics) also contribute to the characteristic changes in consciousness. In some cases, changes in consciousness due to neurological disorders are so specific that they can help in correcting the diagnosis. Moreover, successful neurosurgical or other medical intervention can cause a clear clinical improvement.

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These observations undoubtedly demonstrate the existence of a close connection between consciousness and the brain, but they do not necessarily prove that consciousness is a product of the brain. W. Penfield (a world famous neurosurgeon, who conducted tremendous brain research and made a significant contribution to modern neurophysiology) in the 1976 book, The Mystery of Consciousness, summarizing the work that his whole life is devoted to, expressed deep doubt that consciousness is a product of the brain and can be explained in terms of cerebral anatomy and physiology.

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