Heterochrony of development
Heterochrony development - the term biologists, it means the uneven maturation of various functional systems of the brain.
It is important to understand that any genetic program is not a rigid prescription, fatally predetermining the fate of an individual. This is just a trend, an opportunity that is realized with varying degrees of completeness and always with some modifications. An important role in this process is played by the conditions of intrauterine development, and after birth by environmental factors.
But, despite the resulting possible and real variety of results, scientists identify a number of patterns of development of functional brain systems. And one of the first laws, according to observations of biologists, is that, despite the real possible variety of development options, the genetic program is implemented with fluctuations within certain limits. The range of these oscillations is commonly referred to in genetics as the "reaction rate". The existence of this reaction rate in relation to the developing brain is particularly noticeable when considering the dynamics of the formation of individual functional systems: visual, auditory, motor, etc.
Everyone knows that people differ in their ability to visual, auditory perception, but psychomotor characteristics. These differences appear already in childhood and are difficult to change, even with special pedagogical work. There are children with a so-called "absolute musical ear" and those to whom the "bear in the ear came", children with outstanding vocal data and voiceless, children with the ability to bloom, and children who do not see much of the color spectrum. In one case, we are struck by the amazing sport achievements or dancing abilities of children, in the other - grieving slowness, awkwardness.
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Special pedagogical technologies can correct and develop much. However, we can not disagree with the fact that innate characteristics have a significant impact on the development process, and to a large extent predetermine the contours of future achievements. It should be remembered that the level of achievements, on the one hand, and the level of giftedness and development of abilities, on the other - are in a complex dependence. As a well-known specialist in the field of psychology of creativity Edward de Bono noted, "it's very fast to drive a very modest car".
As the next regularity of genetics, the relative independence of the levels of formation of different, functional systems from each other is singled out. For example, a child may have an "absolute rumor" and understand the music well, but his psychomotor abilities can be at a low level. And as a result, this musical The child does not achieve high results in rhythmic gymnastics or dances. True, researchers always emphasize that this discreteness is not absolute, and different functional systems affect each other.
In order to form a more vivid idea of the external manifestations of the child's neuropsychological development, we will use the analogy with a group of athletes (cyclists or runners) who overcome a long distance. Imagine a separate functional system - as one of these athletes. At the start, they represent a single, dense mass, but gradually stretched out at a distance. Someone becomes a leader, someone takes the second and third positions, and someone gets the role of an outsider. And when passing the route, the mutual arrangement often changes. Like these athletes, the development of various, functional brain systems follows similar rules. At each age stage, some functions seem to be the most active and formed, others are on secondary sites. But, time passes and like athletes passing the intermediate finish, in the next age period the picture can change. The recent leader recedes into the background, yesterday's outsiders come forward.
So, if we imagine some of the age periods as an intermediate finish, then we see that the various functional systems come to it with varying degrees of maturity and perfection. Some have already taken shape and are only slightly modified later, others are in the active formation stage. Hence the idea of sensitive periods has grown in psychology and pedagogy. This is the name for the optimal combination of conditions for the development of certain mental properties and processes characteristic of a certain age period. Premature or delayed in relation to this period, the pedagogical effect is not effective enough and adversely affects the development of the personality.So, for example, to teach a foreign language to a teenager is a very difficult pedagogical task for both the teacher and the adolescent himself, at the same time, a child of 1.5 years old who only learns speech can easily master not one but many languages without special difficulties. The brain of the child at this time is open to the study of languages, and they are all the same for him "foreign" and all native & quot ;. Another example: you can try to begin teaching the academic drawing of a preschool child, but nobody has succeeded in achieving this worthy result. Logical thinking, analytical abilities of the child, motor skills are not enough for this developed. And quite another thing is the training of this complex craft of teenagers. Many of them quickly reach a high level academic figure and demonstrate great success.
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In many respects the problem of developmental dissynchrony is outwardly similar to the previous one. But still they should not be identified. Dissynchronism refers to the uneven development of individual abilities and personal characteristics. It is, rather, the result, the result of heterochrony of maturation and development of functional systems of the brain in environmental conditions. This is one of the most popular, and therefore often discussed in the psychological literature problems. Dissynchronism is usually considered on two levels: external (social) and internal.
The symptomatology of external social dissynchrony is well described in many works. Most often this problem is discussed in connection with children's giftedness. This type of dissynchrony is expressed in the gap between the child and his environment. Since in gifted children this gap is more pronounced, this is often written about. A gifted child who has stepped from the first class, for example, into the fifth, is in a difficult social situation.
No less frequent in the field of view of experts falls inner dissynchrony, which involves discussing the problem of discrepancy levels of development of individual functions, or unbalanced development of individual abilities. The most productive is the discussion of this problem in terms of the correlation of the levels of cognitive, psychosocial and physical development of the child. Ideally, this ratio will look like in Fig. 2.2. Equal-to-diameter circles symbolize an equal degree of development of each of the spheres.
Fig. 2.2. Theoretical development model
In a real child, usually levels of cognitive, psychosocial and physical development are rarely accurately balanced among themselves and still coincide with the norm for a given age. More often than not, some of the spheres are better developed, some worse. This imbalance is especially pronounced in gifted children. They often have a high level of cognitive development combined with a normal or even underestimation, in comparison with the age norm, the level of psychosocial or physical development. A similar picture is often observed in children who are not gifted, just the degree of expression of dissynchrony in this case is somewhat different.
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