As a result of studying this chapter, the student must:


• that knowledge exists in a variety of options;

• levels of scientific knowledge of objective and subjective reality;

be able to

• to distinguish rational and irrational in human activity;

• classify worldviews of the world;


• skills in working with humanitarian knowledge.

Variety of forms of human knowledge

What makes people worship knowledge? Why do they attach such importance to memorizing formulas, laws, dates? Is it impossible to live without all kinds of discoveries and inventions? Does the world collapse if the physical law is not indicated on the board? What makes us reverently appreciate knowledge?

A strong desire for knowledge is an exclusively human need. Any living creature on earth accepts the world as it is. Only a person tries to understand how the world is arranged, what laws govern it, what determines its dynamics. Why does a person need this? It's not easy to answer this question. Sometimes it is said that knowledge helps a person to survive. But this is not entirely true, for it is knowledge that can lead a person to destruction. It is no accident that Ecclesiastes teaches us: the knowledge multiplies grief.

Nevertheless, the ancient man discovered in himself a powerful desire to penetrate into the secrets of the universe, to understand its secrets, to perceive the laws of the universe. This desire penetrated ever deeper into a man, more and more captivated him. In this irresistible aspiration to knowledge reflected human nature. It would seem, why should a particular individual know whether there is life on other planets, how history unfolds, whether it is possible to find the smallest unit of matter, in which the mystery of a living thinking substance. However, having tasted the fruits of knowledge, a person can no longer refuse them. On the contrary, he is ready to go to the stake for the sake of truth.

We climb the dark stairs of cognition, gradually lighting up each new stage. The forms of cognition are varied. Science was not born immediately. At first the person used other forms of comprehending reality. But is it possible to study something in the secrets of the universe without science? Of course, it's not just about practical skills that contain bits of knowledge.

Magic, myth-making are the oldest pre-scientific forms of comprehension of the world. With the help of myth, our distant ancestors tried to organize the accumulated experience of life. They believed that everything goes back to the gods, everywhere their powers are manifested - in the throw of the spear, in the wind and storm that was blowing, in the movement of clouds, in heavenly bodies, in the change of seasons, in the invasion of enemies, in the appearance of disease or suffering. The gods taught people to grow crops, to make wool, to tame horses.

Knowledge exists in a variety of options. Religion serves the needs of the spirit, the person turns his gaze to God when he experiences the terrible torments of loneliness, the fear of death, the tension of spiritual life. Mysticism enchants the possibilities of deep, heightened communion with God and gives hope for a miracle. Science demonstrates the undeniable success of the cognizing mind. Being the backbone of civilizations, it not only clarifies the spiritualizing truths, but also equips people, prolongs their life.

Rudiments of science appeared in ancient China and ancient India. Almost all natural sciences came out of mythology. Before astronomy was born, there was astrology, the object of study of which was the arrangement of stars. Ancient astrologers deified the planets and celestial bodies. Already in the times of Babylonian astrology, certain regularities in the motion of stars were discovered, which then entered into astronomy.

However, not all practical sciences and not any knowledge can be called a science. A spider is not just a list of observations of nature. It arises only when the universal connections between the phenomena of nature are realized. Science as an area of ​​culture was born, according to many philosophers, in ancient Greece. What distinguishes science as a special type of comprehension of reality from its other types? The peculiarity of science consists primarily in the fact that a person began to think about general problems of the universe, which are far from always useful in everyday practical life.

Practical skill is associated with a specific life situation, when, for example, you need to show the skill to build housing, organize hunting, or conduct some kind of ritual. Another thing is a spider. Here, not always a person thinks about what is directly related to immediate needs. For example, a primitive hunter struck a stone on another stone. Suddenly, sparks appeared, from which the dry branches caught fire. Let the fire burn! From it is warm, you can warm food, I want to raise a prayer to the spirit of the patron. Everyone rejoices in the flame. But why did the spark appear? What is fire? How does it come about and why does it die if you do not throw firewood into it?

According to E. Cassirer, science is the last step in the mental development of man; it can be called the highest and most specific achievement of human culture.

An important source of knowledge is philosophy, which is sometimes called higher wisdom. Much of what surrounds us, we admit to our own souls without any account, without critical evaluation. We accept the world around us without thinking about its nature. We try to live on our own without the need for consistent reflection. The load of constant meditation seems intolerable to us. But a different state is inherent in man. He reveals the ability to move towards the spiritualizing truth, to discover the secrets of reality, to feel the subtle differences in the verification of thought.

As the German philosopher W. Windelband points out, the names have their own destiny, but the rare of them had a fate as strange as the word "philosophy". If we turn to history with the question of what is actually a philosophy, and we will cope with the people who were called and are now called philosophers, about their views on the subject of their studies, we will get various and infinitely distant answers from each other. W. Windelband believes that the attempt to express this variegated variety in one simple formula and sum up all this undefined mass of phenomena under a single concept will prove to be a hopeless matter. "

What is the difficulty in interpreting this word? Why is it that almost every major thinker among his works necessarily has a work dedicated specifically to how he understands philosophy? There are endless arguments about what is philosophy and what is the specificity of the knowledge that it contains. Philosophy is one of the inalienable forms of human cultural life. In any era, on different continents, sages were born who thought about the secrets of the world. There was no era when philosophy would disappear. She, apparently, will never cease to exist, while a person is alive. This is a deep, ineradicable need of people who will forever strive to understand the secrets of nature, the human spirit, divine secrets.

There is also everyday, everyday, practical knowledge. It is born in the depths of life. When we address a particular era, it is extremely important for us to know what values ​​people of the time shared, what clothes they wore, what utensils they used, and what their habits were. Several decades ago, we were extremely disparaging to ordinary consciousness. It was treated as unscientific, wretched, tied to false everyday ideas. However, in ordinary consciousness, too, there are some reasons, and a bit of knowledge, and common sense. Everyday experience is diverse. It includes social experience, life practice, common sense. The latter can resist the ideological formulas of politicians who are acting on behalf of "modern scientific knowledge", pursuing manipulative goals.

Pedagogy and psychology are based on the inexhaustible potential of universal and diverse knowledge.

thematic pictures

Also We Can Offer!

Other services that we offer

If you don’t see the necessary subject, paper type, or topic in our list of available services and examples, don’t worry! We have a number of other academic disciplines to suit the needs of anyone who visits this website looking for help.

How to ...

We made your life easier with putting together a big number of articles and guidelines on how to plan and write different types of assignments (Essay, Research Paper, Dissertation etc)