INDIVIDUAL, PERSONALITY IN THE STRUCTURE OF SOCIUM
The content of this chapter is to consider the individual as the primary element of the society, its role and place in the structure of society as a subject and object of pedagogical influences. The chapter describes the essence and content of the socio-pedagogical approach to the study of personality substructures, presents its main characteristics in the form of social needs, social abilities, social values, which the individual represents a person in society. The pedagogical potential of the individual, the personality, as well as its content, evaluation, forms and methods of its realization and development in society is considered.
As a result of studying the chapter, the learner must:
• the main characteristics of the society (at the level of the individual) as a medium of human relations and its pedagogical potential;
be able to
• to organize the realization of the pedagogical potential of the society (at the level of the individual) in the educational process;
• a system of knowledge about the principles of the socio-pedagogical approach, the methods of the socio-pedagogical approach, the essence of the conceptual-categorical apparatus.
Socio-pedagogical approach to the study of personality substructures
Basic concepts : society , conceptual-categorical apparatus of the social pedagogical approach , principles of the socio-pedagogical approach, pedagogical potential of social activity, pedagogical potential of social relations, pedagogical potential of social institutions, intraspecific substructure of personality, intra-individual sub-structure of personality, metainindive substructure of personality.
The interaction of the individual and the society in social pedagogy presupposes the use of the socio-pedagogical approach to studying its content and structure, which are the bearers of its capabilities and resources. It is the socio-pedagogical approach that allows us to consider the personality as an element of society and not only to reveal its pedagogical potential, but also to offer ways of its implementation and development in the interests of self-realization of the individual. Consider the content of the socio-pedagogical approach in relation to the problem of studying personality substructures. In modern social and pedagogical practice, categories that are adequately disclosed in social pedagogy in the form of the socialization of the individual, the interaction of the individual and the society, the educational potential of the individual, the pedagogical potential of the individual, the social activity of the personality, the intraspecific substructure of the personality, the intraindividual substructure of the personality, the metainindive substructure of personality, etc.
Socio-pedagogical approach involves the study of the individual within the socium as an element of society. Due to the fact that there are significant correlation links between the personality and the society, it seems expedient to study the structure of the personality and its pedagogical potential at the level of elements of the structure of the society.
A characteristic feature of the society is that it has a personality-oriented structure.
Therefore, the society as a totality of individuals can be structurally considered in the context of the structure of the individual, personality. Thus, the structure of the society can be expressed through the structure of the personality. The understanding of this issue can be helped by the experience of considering the three basic subsystems of the personality in psychology, which is significant for revealing its constituent structures in interrelation with the structure of the society.
As a basic element in the structure of the personality is the systemic organization of her personality, presented in the form of temperament, character, needs, abilities and values of a person, necessary but insufficient to understand the psychology of the individual. Thus, the first component of the personality structure is selected - its intraduated ( subsystem. ) This component can be taken as the basis for constructing the structure of the society at the intradivine level .
Personality, being a subject of the system of actual relations with society, with the groups in which it is integrated, can not be enclosed only in a certain closed space within the organic body of the individual, but reveals itself in the space of interindivid relations. Not an individual in and of itself, but the processes of interpersonal interaction, into which at least two individuals (and in fact a community, group, collective) are included, can be considered as manifestations of the personality of each of the participants in this interaction.
From this it follows that a person in the system of his real relations finds its own special being, which differs from the bodily existence of the individual. From the point of view of materialistic philosophy, the real existence of the personality is found in the totality of the subject relationships of individuals mediated by their activity, and therefore one of the characteristics of the personality structure should be sought in the "space" outside the organic body of the individual, which constitutes the inter-individual subsystem of the personality. This component can be taken as the basis for the allocation in the structure of the socium of the interindividual level.It is noteworthy that by translating the consideration of personality into interindivided space we are able to answer the question of what the collective phenomenon described above is: collectivist self-determination, collectivist identification, etc. What is this: the actual group or personal manifestations ? When the characteristics and very existence of the individual do not close up under the skin individual, and are carried into the interindivided "space", the false alternative generated by the identification of the concepts "individual" and identity (either personal or group), is overcome. The personal appears as a manifestation of group relationships, the group acts in a specific form of personality manifestations.
The intra -individual and intra-syndic subsystems do not cover all manifestations of the personality. There is an opportunity to distinguish the third component of the personality structure - a metainoid ( nandindivid) substructure. The person is not only carried beyond the organic body of the individual, but moves beyond his existing cash ; here and now ties with other individuals. In this case, in the center of her attention are the "contributions" in other people, which the subject voluntarily or involuntarily carries out through his activities. The individual as a person thus acts as the subject of these actively produced transformations of the intellectual and emotional-volitional spheres of one or another related people. We are talking about an active process of a kind of continuation of ourselves in another, not only at the moment of the subject's influence on other individuals, but also outside immediate immediate interaction. This process of continuing the subject in another individual, securing his "ideal" Representation as a person in other people at the expense of the "deposits" made in them " received the name of personalization. This component can be taken as a basis for representing the structure of the society at the metainind level.
Thus, in the structure of society, as well as in the structure of the personality, there are three generators, three subsystems: the intraindividual identity, its representation in the society in the form of social needs, social abilities and social values; personality identity, manifested in the course of interaction with their own kind and represented in the structure of the society in the form of joint activities and social relations; metaindividuality of the person, manifested in "other people, in contributions to other people" as a subject of interindividive, social in origin relations and relationships in the process of social activity and represented in the structure of the society in the form of social institutions.
From this point of view, the society is an aggregate of social phenomena of the intraindividual ( social needs, social abilities, social values), of the intra -individual ( social activity, social relations) and metainindic social institutions) properties.
In turn, the society has a certain potential, which is borne by its structural elements, individuals, and entire collectives, each of which has inherent only certain capabilities and resources that unite in the potential of the society, the most important components of which are pedagogical and educational potential, realized in the process of personality development.
The socio-pedagogical approach involves interaction of the individual and the pedagogical potential of the society in the interests of resolving the problems of socialization of the individual.
The unity of consideration of the personality in all three of its substructures will be shown on the example of such an important characteristic of it as the educational potential of the society.
The educational potential of the society exists in the individual as a biosocial phenomenon, reflects the potential educational opportunities and resources of a person who are involved in social needs of the individual in interaction with other people, in social abilities to assist other people in the process of their life, in the presence of social values: children , life, communication, kindness, etc., some kind of an attribute of a particular person (this is an intraindividual subsystem of a person, or an intraindividual level of representation th socium).
The educational potential of the society takes place in the system of interpersonal relations and depending on the level of development of the group: in developed groups, it manifests itself as an educational resource of the positive influence of social activity or social relations on the individual, and in other, low-developed social groups - as the resources of negative the impact of social activity or social relations (this is an intra-individual subsystem of the individual, or an intra-level level of social representation).
Within the framework of a metaindividual subsystem, the educational potential of a society is the educative impact of a social institution, its role, the right to make meaningful decisions for parenting in significant circumstances, the result of that educational contribution that it can contribute to the development of the personality (this is a metainindive subsystem of personality, or metainindic level of the representation of the society).
The metainindive subsystem of the individual more than others, expresses one of the most important spiritual needs of man - the need to be a person, i.e. by its activity to produce significant changes for other people of their intellectual and emotional spheres. This need can be realized or not realized by the subject, maybe one person is more intense, the other less - its implementation can lead to favorable or adverse consequences for other people; finally, one person can have the means to meet it (due to high intellect, or the wealth of the emotional world, or a wide variety of skills, or exceptional courage and determination, or all of these qualities combined), and the other has more limited means.
The metaindividual level of the society, represented in the form of social institutions, is the most representative in terms of content, structure and scope of the pedagogical potential of the society, as it embodies the possibilities of social activity and social relations, which include numerous individuals in the process of socialization. However, for an individual, the importance of the pedagogical potential of a particular social institution is incomparable with the pedagogical potential of an individual or a particular type of social activity; it can be higher and lower in comparison with the need to solve the problem of socialization of a particular person at a given moment. It turns out that for one individual the pedagogical potential of a social institution is more significant than for another, which is more suitable for resolving the problems of socialization, the pedagogical potential of an individual person, say a reference person.
It is impossible to study and understand the society without studying and understanding the structure of the individual, the persons who enter as equal among equals into the society in which the person acts and communicates, produces and accepts contributions, transforming the intellectual and emotional spheres of others people and, in turn, undergoing changes by accepting "contributions" from them. In the center of attention of the teacher in the study of society should be the activity of the individual and the nature of its socially significant direction.
In this case, the socio-pedagogical approach is considered as a multi-level mechanism for providing information that is missing for the individual to develop skills, skills or personal qualities based on the realization of the pedagogical potential of the society, social experience.
We believe that the approach is the orientation of the teacher or the head of the educational institution in the implementation of his actions, which encourages the use of a certain set of interrelated concepts, principles, ideas and methods of pedagogical activity. Choosing this or that orientation, the teacher is convinced that it helps to achieve success in his work. For example, some pedagogical collectives use a differentiated approach in their activities, because they consider the creation of training groups, with approximately equal intellectual abilities of students, the most important condition for increasing the effectiveness of the teaching and upbringing process. Others prefer a systemic approach, since success is seen in the systematic construction of the practice of teaching and educating students. And still others believe that they will succeed when they select an orientation toward individual development in their work with students, and therefore they strive to apply a personality-oriented approach in their activities.
Those who, in achieving their goal, are involved in interaction with the society and attracts its potential for resolving the problems of socialization, a clear supporter of the socio-pedagogical approach.
The social pedagogical approach assumes concentration of efforts in activity not on metamorphosis with personality, but on methods of influencing it through society, using that huge educational and educational potential that accumulates every hour, every day and every year for centuries in the form of social experience, stored in the social structure: social activities, social relations, social institutions and in the individual as the primary component of the society in the form of social needs and societies ial abilities.
An important component of the socio-pedagogical approach are the methods of studying the pedagogical potential of an individual that is significant for the socialization of a person, which allows studying the possibilities and resources of a society that are significant for resolving specific problems of the individual. Before implementing measures of influence on the personality, the specialist studies the very problem of the individual and the possibilities of the socium necessary to solve it, and, therefore, addresses the methods of studying. In this case, social tools are used to collect information about the pedagogical potential of social activity, social relations, social institutions and the potential of the individual (see Appendices 9-15).
Methods of studying the pedagogical potential of the individual are integrative ways of gathering information about the potential of the individual, in particular about the potential of his social needs, the potential of his social abilities, the potential of his social values, and are primarily intended to determine the initial level of development of the potential of the individual, and to monitor the development process and determine the final data of the phenomenon being studied. These are methods of collecting information, usually first to measure the input data and at the completion of the impact process to measure the final data. One of the most important methods of studying the potential of the individual is the socio-pedagogical map of the potential of the society as a method of collecting information on significant resources, opportunities for social activity, social relations, social institutions and the individual to solve the problems of its socialization. This is a method of summarizing information about the significant aspects of the potential of the society, the forms and methods of using it to solve problems of socialization of the individual.
In studying the substructure of personality, an important place is occupied by the social experience accumulated by it in various conditions of life activity, significant for revealing the reasons for the difficulties of socialization and working out measures to overcome them.
That is why the main tool, the mechanism of the social pedagogical approach is social experience.
Using social experience to solve the educational and upbringing problems of the individual is the essence of the socio-pedagogical approach by organizing opposing personality movements with their problems and the potential of the society to each other.
Most often, the study of personality is based on not one but several approaches. Of course, the orientations chosen by him must be complementary, and not mutually exclusive. Together they form the strategy of educational activity and determine the choice of tactics of actions in a concrete situation and in a certain period of time. From the whole range of approaches used in the activity, one orientation should be dominant. Thanks to it the qualitative originality of cognition of potential of the person as a part of society is formed.
At the same time, the activity of any educational institution necessarily implements a social and pedagogical approach, referring to the resources and opportunities of social institutions and establishing interaction with them (with families of students, other schools, healthcare institutions, social protection of the population, cultural and sports institutions and etc.), to the resources of social activities, including students and teachers, to the resources of social relations (interdisciplinary, interpersonal, intergroup), including students in these relationships.
Practice shows that the effectiveness of this approach is achieved where its implementation is carried out purposefully, where there is a proper organization of activities to use the pedagogical potential of the society, where they do not hope for the case, but skillfully organize this process, the process of interaction with the society.>
Thus, the socio-pedagogical approach makes it possible to change views on the personality and its formation within the framework of social institutions (kindergarten, school, institution of additional education, university). The social pedagogical approach concentrates the attention of specialists on the system of pedagogically regulated educational and educational influences on the part of the society, representing the socium itself and one hundred pedagogical potential through the structural and functional capabilities of individual individuals included in the social environment.
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