Information technology training
One of the effects of introducing the information age is a radical change in what people need to learn in order to succeed in a new society, in new economic conditions. Digital literacy and the perfection of information tools are becoming necessary on the road to success in all spheres of life. As new technologies create demands for new skills in the society, information tools provide the teaching of these skills better than traditional methods. At the same time, there is a point of view that technologies in teaching are simply tools that are not themselves capable of teaching. Only with effective, situational, targeted application they help make the learning process successful. In modern education, a whole range of information tools and teaching methods have been developed, among them: methods of teaching using computers; method of computer management of learning processes; method of teaching on the basis of Internet technologies; method of teaching based on web-technologies, etc.
All this complex of modern information learning tools has been called Education using computer technology. " Web technologies, :
- the possibility of improving the learning process;
- the possibility of allocating more time to work with trainees in individual and small group activities;
- getting rid of repeated repetition of learning assignments;
- getting rid of the numerous paper training streams with assignments and guidelines;
- ensuring the improvement of the quality of teaching materials.
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The use of web-technology allows participants of interaction in the educational process to absorb material in any form (illustrative, sound, video, media-animation, etc.), at any time convenient for them and in any place. Such a technology makes it possible to substantially individualize training, i.e. orient on the "averaged", as it happens in the classroom, but on any student with his own learning abilities. Web-based learning not only stimulates the transition to interactive online and distance learning, the formation of virtual reality in education, thanks to high-speed Internet channels, corporate Internet and extranet networks, but also has a revolutionary impact on teaching content and improving teaching skills.
Back in 1954 Professor BF Skinner was nominated and developed in the work of specialists from many countries, including United States scientists, technology of programmed learning. Objective This technology consisted in the desire to improve the effectiveness of management of the learning process on the basis of the cybernetic approach. At its core, programmed learning involves the work of a participant in a program, in the process of which he learns knowledge. The role of the teacher is reduced to tracing the student's psychological condition and the effectiveness of his gradual mastering of the educational material, and, if necessary, to the regulation of program activities. In general, programmed instruction can be considered as an attempt to formalize the learning process with the maximum possible elimination of the subjective factor of direct communication between the teacher and participants in the pedagogical process.
The modern development of computer technologies and distance learning increases the role of the theory of programmed learning in educational practice, but the need for organizing the collective interaction of all participants in the educational process required the development and application of other information and communication technologies i.e. training based on the use of electronic means - audiovisual, computer, hypertext, hypermedia - that mediate interaction between teachers and students, provide interactive dialogue, the ability to individualize the learning process, access to information channels and networks. Information and communication technologies also include distance learning, training programs, multimedia technologies, etc.
Telecommunications facilities can provide the following opportunities for implementing information and communication technologies:
- operational transmission to any distances of information of any volume and type;
- interactivity and operational feedback;
- access to various sources of information;
- the organization of joint telecommunications projects;
- request information on any issue of interest through the system of electronic conferences.Electronic information and educational resources include electronic editions of textbooks, dictionaries, reference books, manuals, etc. The recording of electronic publications on various external media (DVD, flash cards, external HDD) allows you to integrate a huge amount of information in one repository and use her at any time as necessary. Hypertext technology in electronic educational publications provides an opportunity to choose an individual route for studying the material. In addition, based on modeling the learning process, it is possible to supplement almost any textbook with the necessary tests, track and direct the trajectory of the study of the material, thus providing feedback.
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To consolidate the study material in the educational process, training and testing systems, are used, which can be both an independent learning tool and enter as a subsystem in the educational process. Their essence is providing the trainees with questions, tasks, tests, exercises and processing responses with providing appropriate feedback.
To activate search activity of trainees and as separate software in the training systems, technologies modeling programs, are used to simulate experiments, imaginary or real life situations. Computer modeling can be based on a mathematical model, laboratory experiment, animation, which presents the work of some organization, the flow of a physical process, etc. The peculiarities of the learning model allow us to purposefully create exactly the situations that are necessary for the interaction of participants in the educational process to identify the level of specific knowledge. The use of modeling programs promotes the development of trainees' qualities such as activity, independence, logical thinking, ability to reflective analysis, etc.
A widely spread technology that provides effective communication of subjects of the educational process is e-mail (e-mail), ie. asynchronous communication environment. Asynchrony means that to receive a message through the mail, it is required to coordinate the time and place of receipt with the sender and vice versa. Almost every Internet user has an e-mail address, but you can send texts, graphics, programs, multimedia files. E-mail allows you to communicate with one or several partners at the same time. This feature allows the teacher to carry out distance learning at once several trainees and establish feedback with them, wherever they are. With the help of e-mail, the teacher can immediately spread the answers to the most frequently asked questions, information of an organizational nature, not only to those who asked, but to all trainees. If you want to view mail from different computers, you can open a so-called web mailbox. You can view mail in this box from any computer connected to the Internet. Specialists in the field of information technology note the simplicity and accessibility of e-mail, there are great opportunities for individualizing work with trainees, as well as organizing their collective activities and interpersonal interaction.
For exchanging innovative ideas and suggestions, like email, electronic conferencing - is an asynchronous communication environment that provides users with a structured forum where you can in a written form a statement of your opinion, ask a question and read the remarks of other participants. Asynchrony contributes to the reflection and thoughtfulness of questions and answers, and the ability to use files of any type (graphics, sound, animation) makes such virtual seminars very effective.
In recent years, the widest application in the processes of learning and self-development has received the Internet, the technology of which is that they provide both trainees and educators with a huge choice of sources information, realizing in practice the principle of redundancy of resources for effective interaction of participants in the educational process.
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