Language differences and psychology.
It is important to understand that language can be viewed both as a manifestation and as a product of culture. Accordingly, the differences between languages reflect important differences between cultures. For example, in Japanese culture, the language should be modified in accordance with the relationship and context in which communication occurs. Behavior and language will be different when interacting with people of different status, as well as with people belonging to an external or internal group of a person. Thus, the system of choice of words reflects important aspects of Japanese culture.
Culture affects not only the vocabulary of the language, but also in what social context to use those or other words. For example, it has been found that cultures in which languages are allowed to omit the pronoun "I" are usually more collectivistic.
As D. Matsumoto points out, cultural differences are fixed in such areas as apology, children's stories, self-disclosure, compliments and mutual criticism. Thus, Americans tend to favor explanations as forms of apology, the Japanese prefer compensation. When comparing the levels of self-disclosure of Americans and Chinese, the former demonstrated a much higher level of self-disclosure.
In general, it can be concluded that differences in languages reflect important differences between cultures, and also help strengthen cultural characteristics. Through the use of language, a person is transformed into a cultural agent, i.e. absorbs all of its essence. Therefore, it is important to understand that people of different cultures structure the world around themselves in different ways, therefore, in many ways they see the world around in different ways.
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Psychology of social identity. Civil, ethnic, regional and cultural identifications.
The widespread use of the term identity and his introduction to scientific use is connected with the name of E. Erikson, who defined identity as the internal continuity and identity of the individual as the most important characteristic of its integrity and maturity, as the integration of experiences by a person with his inseparable connection with his environment, identifying himself with certain social groups. This determines the system of values, ideals, life plans, the social role of the individual, his needs and ways of implementing them. Identity characterizes exactly what remains constant, despite all the changes and development of this person throughout his life. To have an identity means, firstly, to feel yourself, your being as a person unchanged, regardless of the changing situation, role, self-perception. Secondly, it means experiencing the past, the present and the future as a whole. Third, it means that a person feels a connection between his own continuity and the recognition of this continuity by other people. One of the main components of the personality is the realization of the self-identity, i.e. a sense of its integrity and continuity in time, and the understanding that other people also recognize this. The main functions of identity are adaptive (it protects the integrity and individuality of a person's experience, enables him to foresee both internal and external dangers and to balance his abilities with the social opportunities provided by society) and organizing (organizing life experience into an individual "I").Typically, the following types of identity are identified: gender (associated with the definition of gender roles), professional (choice of profession), ethnic (awareness of oneself as a member of an ethnic group), civil or regional (awareness of oneself as a citizen of a certain country or region), cultural (awareness of belonging to a particular culture). Each of the types of identity is a very important component of the self-concept. However, ethnic identity is important for the organization of multicultural education, since it can have a greater impact on the effectiveness of communication between students with each other or with educators who are members of different ethnic groups.
As TG Stefanenko points out, ethnic identity can be distinguished among other kinds of identities also because identifying oneself with any ethnic group is one of the most reliable supports. After all, the ethnos is the most stable group of all existing kinds of trunks, whose lifetime is not limited, and a person can not enter or leave it at will.
Ethnic identity is the realization of one's belonging to a particular ethnic group. In its structure, as most researchers note, there are usually two main components:
- cognitive , which includes knowledge or ideas about the characteristics of your own ethnic group and self-awareness as a member based on certain external or internal characteristics;
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- affective , which consists in evaluating the qualities of your own ethnic group, in relation to membership in it, the importance of this membership.
Some authors also add a behavioral component, not only thinking about the mechanism of awareness, but also the mechanism of manifesting oneself as a member of a particular ethnic group, i.e. use of a certain system of relations and actions in communication with representatives of one's own and other ethnic groups.
With the concept of ethnic identity the concept of "ethnic constancy" is closely related, i.e. the individual's awareness of the stability and immutability of ethnic characteristics. Most researchers argue that awareness of ethnic constancy completes the formation of ethnic identity in adolescence.
Awareness of yourself as a representative of a particular ethnic group is accompanied by the onset of a feeling of "we" or the process of social identification. X. Tashfel and J. Turner indicate that the identification process is associated with the process of social differentiation or the emergence of feelings "they". And it is these two inseparable processes that lead to the formation of social identity, and ethnic identity as part of it.
Many researchers also confirm the influence of a polyethnic environment on the formation of ethnic identity, since the existence of interethnic communication provides more opportunities for social identification and differentiation. The lack of such experience not only means the absence of certain communicative skills and interethnic understanding, but also less interest in their own ethnic self-determination.
Most often, ethnic identity is dictated to the child by society, by purposefully shaping a positive attitude toward the child and his ethnic group. However, growing up, a child can realize that his positive attitude resists a negative attitude towards the majority. In this case, the child can reconsider his attitude towards the ethnic group. To date, there are several classifications of strategies for the formation of ethnic identity among members of minority groups.
For example, TG Stefanenko considers an linear identity model , which includes three variants of strategies:
- Social Creativity Strategy , which includes finding new grounds for comparing your ethnic group to others or choosing to compare weaker and less successful ethnic groups in an effort to preserve or restore their positive ethnic identity;
- the strategy of correct self-identification along with the negative assessment of its ethnic group , which can manifest itself in the fact that the individual attributes negative characteristics to other members of his group, but not to himself , while being aware of himself as a member of this ethnic group;
- the strategy of changing the ethnic group , typical for representatives of minority groups and children from mixed marriages, which manifests itself in a more positive change in their ethnicity.
In real life, representatives of ethnic minority groups or children from mixed marriages have more options than full acceptance and identification with one of the ethnic groups. In recognition of this, J. Berry created a model of two dimensions of ethnic identity, which includes four variants of ethnic identity with varying degrees of intensity of identification with one or more ethnic groups. J. Berry identified the following four variants of ethnic identity:
- a monoethnic identity with its ethnic group , characteristic of most;
- a monoethnic identity with a foreign ethnic group , accompanied by a change of ethnic identity with complete assimilation, i.e. acceptance of values, norms, traditions, language of a foreign ethnic group;
- biethnic identity , characterized by strong identification with both interacting ethnic groups, awareness of similarities with both cultures;
- marginal ethnic identity , expressed in a weak and not expressed ethnic identity and in the absence of complete identification with any of the cultures, while completely failing the norms and values of none of the represented by ethnic groups is often accompanied by intrapersonal conflicts.
Some authors rightly point out that the existence of different degrees of awareness of their ethnic identity means the possibility of its complete absence, which is manifested in the denial of the importance of the ethnic factor both in their lives and in the life of society as a whole. Such a strategy allows members of minority groups to maintain a positive social identity, eliminating the ethnic identity that carries concern. In this case, individuals can rely on a civil identity or refer themselves to Europeans, Asians or even citizens of the world, thus declaring a cosmopolitan identity. However, the displacement of ethnic identity leads not only to the loss of integrity "I" individual, but also to a loss of connection with one's culture.
Several classifications of possible strategies for choosing ethnic identity have been considered above. But the most complete approach to this issue came from G. Soldatova, who singled out seven types of identity:
1) normal identity (positive ethnic identity), in which the image of their people is perceived as positive, there is a favorable attitude to their culture, history, natural patriotism, tolerant installation on communication with other peoples, understanding of their contribution to history;
2) ethnocentric identity , in which the emphasis is on the importance of ethnicity, there is an unconditional uncritical preference;
3) ethnodominant identity captures a state of self-awareness and human behavior in which not only ethnic identity becomes paramount among other types of identities, but also the achievement of the goals, interests of the people perhaps falsely understood) is beginning to be perceived as an undoubtedly dominant value. Such an identity is usually accompanied by ideas about the superiority of its people, discriminatory attitudes towards other ethnic groups;
4) ethnic fanaticism - an identity in which the absolute dominance of ethnic interests and goals is accompanied by a willingness to go in their name for any sacrifices and actions, up to the use of terrorism. This type is an extreme form of aggressive identity;
5) ethnic indifference , when people are practically indifferent to the problems of ethnicity and interethnic relations, the values of one's own and other peoples. They are free from norms and traditions, and their behavior in any spheres of activity is not affected either by their own ethnicity or ethnicity of others;
6) ethnonihilism is a denial of ethnicity, ethnic, ethno-cultural values; declaration of freedom from everything connected with the ethnic phenomenon; a demonstration of yourself as a "man of the world". One of the types of outwardly declared ethnic indifference or even nihilism is an ethnoscored identity. Usually it arises in connection with the awareness of the low status of its ethnic group, the recognition of its inferiority to others. Hence - avoidance of the demonstration of their ethnicity, and sometimes even the denial of all ethnicity;
7) ambivalent , not expressed, and sometimes doubled or even built identity. This type of ethnic identity is quite common in an ethnically mixed environment.
Thus, speaking about the problem of the formation of ethnic identity, it is necessary to note the importance of adolescents' awareness of their ethnic identity. It is necessary that adolescents feel their belonging to a certain ethnic group, to a certain ethnic community. This will help them better navigate the world around them, identify values and norms. Awareness of their ethnic identity is an important stage in the personal development of adolescents. A significant contribution to this process can be made by the older generation, since it is the bearer of traditions, values, norms that the future generation needs to know and to some extent accept to achieve ethnic identity.
Cross-cultural psychology. Cross-cultural psychology studies human behavior in the context of culture. The goal is to identify the similarities and differences in individual psychological functioning in different cultures and ethno-cultural groups, as well as in the relationships between psychological, sociocultural, ecological and biological variables (D. Berry, A. X. Purtigga, M. X. Sigall , PR Dasen).
The most important tasks of cross-cultural psychology are the study of cultural transmission, acculturation and adaptation dynamics in a different culture.
The concept of a cultural transmission was used by Cavalli-Sforza and Feldman; but the analogy with the concept of genetic transmission, according to which certain features of the population are fixed in time in different generations through genetic mechanisms. cultural transmission refers to the transmission of behavioral traits by a cultural group to subsequent generations through cognition and learning mechanisms.
Cavalli-Sforza and Feldman call the transfer of cultural characteristics by parents to children vertical. At the same time, they distinguish two more types of transmission - horizontal and indirect. The horizontal transmission includes the influence of peers. Indirect - other adults.
Dedicated forms of cultural transmission include two processes - inculturation and socialization. Inculturation occurs as a result of immersing people in a particular culture and including in their repertoire an acceptable type of behavior for themselves. Socialization is carried out in the process of specialized training and education.
Acculturation - is a concept borrowed from anthropology. It includes three main positions - intercultural strategies (how people live in two cultures), psychological acculturation (personality change and stresses) and adaptation (long-term results). In fact, acculturation is a change in a person arising in the process of changing the cultural context. Acculturation can exist both individually and at the group level. To start the process of acculturation, it is necessary that there is constant and direct contact between cultures, and this does not necessarily lead to cultural loss. In addition to destructive acculturation, two more options are possible: the subsequent revival or approval by people of their culture and the creative option when new cultures arise as a result of interaction.
However, of course, acculturation can be accompanied by acculturation stress, which manifests itself in uncertainty, anxiety, depression. Sometimes this stress can interrupt the process of acculturation. But in a prosperous variant, after a certain time, adaptation will follow, which happens to be psychological, as well as social.
By psychological adaptation is understood the attainment of psychological comfort. Under social - a social statement, the emergence of new social ties. Acculturation is determined by both personal and situational factors. People enter into the process of acculturation with characteristics of a demographic, psychological and social nature. In particular, age influences acculturation. For example, in pre-school children or younger schoolchildren, the process of acculturation passes quickly and smoothly. People of mature age will make it more difficult. The process of acculturation is influenced by the gender factor. There are studies that argue that women are exposed to greater problematic risk than men. Another factor is education: higher education implies more than
Low stress level. However, if acculturation is accompanied by a decrease in status, the risk of cultural shock is increased.
It is important to distinguish the motivational aspect of acculturation. With voluntary migration and positive expectations (motivation for attraction), adaptation is quick. With the motivation "ejection", i.e. migration but coercive circumstances, the risk of stress increases.
An important factor in acculturation is the cultural distance. The more cultural differences, the greater the difficulty. A large cultural distance means a large loss of one's own culture and a conflict of cultures, which adversely affects adaptation. Adaptation is influenced by personal factors, including general stress resistance, self-relationship, self-efficacy.
The classic description of positive adaptation involves first the appearance of problems, then their aggravation, then a long-term positive adaptation. With positive acculturation, acculturation strategies are interconnected. The most successful integration , i.e. preservation of their cultural identity and the adoption of new values, behaviors. The last stage is marginalization, i.e. rejection of their values and rejection. Assimilation (full adherence to new values) and separation (the desire to retain their cultural identity) are located in the middle.
On the adaptation is significantly influenced by external social relations. The relationship of support between the two cultures will lead to successful adaptation.
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